Trichomoniasis In Women: Symptoms, Routes Of Transmission, Treatment

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Trichomoniasis In Women: Symptoms, Routes Of Transmission, Treatment
Trichomoniasis In Women: Symptoms, Routes Of Transmission, Treatment

Video: Trichomoniasis In Women: Symptoms, Routes Of Transmission, Treatment

Video: Trichomoniasis In Women: Symptoms, Routes Of Transmission, Treatment
Video: What is Trichomoniasis? (Sexually Transmitted Infection) 2023, May

Trichomoniasis carries a great danger for both women and men. In some cases, the disease is asymptomatic, but this does not mean that it is worth taking it lightly. Trichomonas provokes in women the development of a disease such as trichomoniasis. The disease is sexually transmitted, but cases of domestic infection are not excluded.

The content of the article:

  • 1 Trichomonas - what is it?
  • 2 The causative agent of Trichomonas
  • 3 Diagnosis of trichomoniasis
  • 4 Symptoms of trichomoniasis in women
  • 5 What complications can cause trichomoniasis in women?
  • 6 Rules for the treatment of Trichomonas in women
  • 7 Treatment of Trichomonas in women
  • 8 Treatment of chronic Trichomonas in women
  • 9 Traditional treatments for trichomoniasis

    • 9.1 Tablets
    • 9.2 Candles
    • 9.3 Vaccination
  • 10 Alternative methods of treatment

    • 10.1 Infusions
    • 10.2 Douching and baths
    • 10.3 Tinctures
    • 10.4 Juices
    • 10.5 Tampons
  • 11 Prevention of trichomoniasis

Trichomonas - what is it?


Trichomonas is the simplest single-celled microorganism of the flagellate class, which is widespread. Trichomonas in women and men causes a disease called trichomoniasis. Its main symptoms are similar to those of genitourinary infections such as cystitis, colpitis, urethritis, proctitis, etc.

In general, three types of Trichomonas can exist in the human body: oral, intestinal and vaginal. The last of the listed species is the largest, most active and pathogenic. Oral and intestinal Trichomonas do not pose a danger to human health.

Trichomonas have flagella, which are their means of transportation. It is thanks to the flagella that microorganisms are able to actively move. Trichomonas have no gender, reproduce by longitudinal division. They are able to exist not only in the human body, but also outside it.

Although the structure of Trichomonas is very simple, in general, this single-celled individual is a separate microorganism. Trichomonas size varies in length from 13 to 18 microns. The small size and high plasticity of the body allows Trichomonas to penetrate even into the intercellular space. Trichomonas are anaerobic organisms that do not require oxygen.


An oxygen-free humid environment with a temperature of 35-37 degrees is considered optimal for these microorganisms. They are attached to the mucous membrane of the genitourinary tract and provoke the development of the inflammatory process. The person suffers from general intoxication, the patient's immunity worsens.

Trichomonas are able to exist not only in the genitals of a person, but also in the blood vessels. They get there through the lymphatic tract. Trichomonas are perfectly adapted to life inside the human body. They are able to disguise themselves as platelets and lymphocytes, they can carry other microbes on themselves, thereby preventing the immune system from destroying its own cells.

Basically, the disease affects women aged 16 to 35 years.

Another danger of Trichomonas is their ability to "hide" other pathogenic microorganisms inside themselves, including: gonococci, herpes virus, ureaplasma, etc. With the help of active and mobile Trichomonas, other bacteria have the opportunity to penetrate the blood vessels and spread faster through the genitourinary system.

In addition, Trichomonas disrupt the integrity of the epithelial integument, thereby accelerating the process of infection with other sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. It is possible to transmit the infection to the child during childbirth, this happens in 5% of cases. However, children tolerate the infection more easily, and in some cases, self-healing is possible.

The causative agent of Trichomonas

Vaginal Trichomonas (Trichomonas vaginalis) is a parasitic protozoan belonging to the flagellate class. That is, T. is not a bacterium, but a unicellular animal; therefore, most antibacterial drugs have no effect on it.

This is a typical obligate (obligatory) human parasite that lives in the vagina in women and in the urethra in men, but in some cases it is able to penetrate into the upper parts of the genitourinary system.

Features of the pathogen:

  • outside the human body, it is able to live no more than a few hours, provided that moisture is maintained;
  • quickly dies on drying, exposure to direct sunlight, heating;
  • able to escape from the supervision of the immune system, disguising itself as host cells;
  • other bacteria can enter the Trichomonas, where they find protection from the immune system and drugs. And thanks to its mobility, it is able to carry the causative agents of other sexually transmitted infections into the upper parts of the genitourinary system;
  • in turn, sexually transmitted infections can create more favorable conditions for the development of Trichomonas. The most favorable conditions for this parasite: anaerobic environment, pH 5.2 - 6.2;
  • It is capable of damaging the epithelial barrier, which reduces its protective function, thereby facilitating infection with other STIs, including HIV.

Diagnostics of the trichomoniasis

Diagnosis of trichomoniasis consists in detecting the pathogen using various methods.

On the basis of complaints of patients and examination, one can suspect the presence of Trichomonas. On examination, women with trichomoniasis show signs of inflammation - edema and hyperemia of the vulva and vagina.

During coloscopy, a symptom of "strawberry cervix" can be observed: reddening of the mucous membrane with pinpoint and focal hemorrhages on the cervix. Dysplasia of the epithelium is noted, sometimes the appearance of atypical epithelial cells is possible.

Trichomoniasis is reliably detected using laboratory methods: microscopy of the test material (in women - smears from the vagina and urethra, in men - smears from the urethra); cultural (microbiological) method using artificial nutrient media; immunological method; PCR - diagnostics.

Smear for trichomoniasis in women: a smear for trichomoniasis is the most accessible and inexpensive method for diagnosing this disease. Such a smear can be taken at any clinic.

Normally (if the woman is healthy), the smear results will contain an entry of the following character: T.vaginalis (or simply "trich", "tr") was not found.


If a woman is sick with trichomoniasis, then the results will say that T.vaginalis ("trich", "tr") has been detected. Since in some cases this test can give false-negative results, if trichomoniasis is suspected, the gynecologist prescribes other, more accurate analyzes.

Culture for trichomoniasis (culture):

sowing for Trichomonas is the most effective method for diagnosing trichomoniasis, which is used throughout the civilized world. This analysis gives more accurate results than a smear for trichomoniasis, but it takes more time to perform. A positive result (if there is trichomoniasis) is usually given after 2 days, a negative result (if there is no trichomoniasis) - after a week.

PCR for trichomoniasis: determination of Trichomonas DNA in a smear from the vagina or from the cervix is the most effective test for trichomoniasis, the accuracy of which is close to 100%. A positive result (“found”) confirms the diagnosis of trichomoniasis, and a negative (“not found”) indicates that there is no trichomoniasis.

Trichomonas antibody test : This is a blood test that detects specific proteins in the blood - antibodies that indicate that the immune system has encountered the causative agent of trichomoniasis. Currently, this analysis is rarely used, since its results are not always accurate and this analysis cannot be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment.

Symptoms of trichomoniasis in women

From the moment of infection with vaginal Trichomonas until the first complaints and symptoms appear, it can take up to a maximum of 2 months, but on average this period is 10 days. But, it is possible that no complaints and symptoms will appear at all, and Trichomoniasis develops.

In this case, you are just a carrier of the disease and calmly, without suspecting anything, infect your sexual partners. Although most often it is men who are carriers, this happens to women too.

In the best case, the fact of carriage will be established by a routine examination for sexually transmitted diseases. That is why it is so important not to forget about such surveys so as not to overlook the danger.

The symptoms of trichomoniasis in a woman are:

  • perhaps the most frightening symptom will be vaginal discharge. Their color can vary: yellow-green, grayish-yellow, light yellow. They are quite abundant and have an unpleasant odor. But most importantly, they are frothy! It is necessary to pay special attention to this, because the following symptoms are nonspecific and characteristic of almost any inflammatory process in the vagina;
  • itching, burning in the vagina and external genital area;
  • pain during urination (with damage to the urethra), increased urge to urinate;
  • redness and swelling of the vulva (vestibule of the vagina);
  • discomfort and even pain during intercourse;
  • very rarely there are pains in the lower abdomen, low intensity, aching character.

What complications can cause trichomoniasis in women?


As a rule, trichomoniasis is successfully treated and almost never causes long-term consequences after recovery. Cases of inflammation of the uterus and fallopian tubes against the background of trichomoniasis with subsequent infertility are rare.

It is noted that trichomoniasis has a risk of viral infections such as HIV and HPV (human papilloma virus). Women who have had trichomoniasis have an increased risk of developing cervical cancer.

Trichomoniasis during pregnancy can lead to missed pregnancies and miscarriages, premature birth, fetal growth retardation, and intrauterine infection.

Rules for the treatment of Trichomonas in women


Trichomoniasis is treated by both sexual partners: both in women and in men, this disease must be eliminated at the same time, otherwise cases of re-infection are inevitable. Also, during the period of treatment, the girl should stop drinking alcoholic beverages and spicy foods.

Among other things, partners must maintain sexual rest until they receive negative tests for infection. Usually, the treatment of trichomoniasis in women begins in the later stages of the disease, since in the early period its symptoms are not expressed not clearly.

At times, the infection is almost asymptomatic. Treatment should be carried out exclusively under the guidance of a qualified doctor using complex methods. Treatment of Trichomonas is a process that is often not too prolonged in time.

Basic rules for the treatment of Trichomonas:

  • Trichomonas treatment is necessary regardless of the presence or absence of clinical manifestations (symptoms);
  • when the pathogen is identified, a prerequisite is the examination of all sexual partners, and, if necessary, treatment;
  • trichomoniasis can be combined with other sexually transmitted infections (chlamydia, gonorrhea, mycoplasmosis, ureaplasmosis, gandnerel, human papmloma virus, syphilis, HIV) - which should be taken into account in diagnosis and treatment;
  • Trichomonas is not a bacterium, but the simplest (unicellular) animal. Therefore, most antibiotics do not work on it. Treatment is based on the appointment of drugs of the 5-nitroimidazole group (metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole, nimorazole, ternidazole);
  • drugs prescribed for this disease (with the exception of ornidazole) alter the way alcohol is processed in the liver. Alcohol consumption (even in small amounts) during treatment can lead to serious poisoning.

If women have a frothy vaginal discharge that has an unpleasant odor, and other signs of an infectious process, it is necessary to consult a gynecologist. In addition, it will be useful to consult a venereologist about the treatment of sexual partners. With concomitant inflammation of the urinary tract, a consultation with a urologist is prescribed.

Treatment of Trichomonas in women

During treatment, certain rules for personal hygiene should be followed. Secondly, you need to wash yourself using antiseptic drugs (solution of potassium permanganate or Furacilin).

Secondly, the underwear must be changed daily. Thirdly, it is allowed to use only individual washcloths, sponges and towels. This will prevent the infection of family members, and in particular children.

Gynecologists, urologists and venereologists are engaged in the treatment of Trichomonas. After undergoing treatment of persistent immunity, the human body is not able to develop, therefore, re-infection is quite possible.

For pregnant women, the possibility of therapy is determined by the observing physician. Treatment can be carried out no earlier than 2 trimesters.


It is important to remember that drugs that have a detrimental effect on Trichomonas are incompatible with alcohol, since they all provoke the development of an antabuse syndrome.

Therefore, in order to avoid serious poisoning, it is necessary to stop drinking any alcohol-containing drinks. An exception to this rule is Ornidazole.

Sometimes Trichomonas are resistant to drugs from the 5-nitroimidazole group. As a rule, such resistance is partial and adjusting the dose or frequency of administration allows you to solve the existing problem.

In order to prevent the development of drug resistance of microorganisms, it is necessary to follow the medical instructions exactly. Prevention of the disease is reduced to a reasonable approach in terms of organizing sexual activity. This will make it possible to protect yourself not only from trichomoniasis, but also from other sexually transmitted infections.

Treatment of chronic Trichomonas in women

Chronic trichomoniasis is the stage of the disease that is most difficult to treat. Effective treatment of chronic trichomoniasis in women should be mandatory.

In no case should self-medication be carried out: this can lead to a violation of the reproductive function of the girl, as well as to the occurrence of concomitant diseases of the genitourinary system. How to cure chronic trichomoniasis in women? Usually, the treatment regimen is based on taking specific drugs that eliminate the infection in the body.

The course, on average, is 10 days, but at the insistence of the doctor, it can be increased. Also, chronic trichomoniasis in women is treated with drugs that increase immunity, which, as you know, weakens at a late stage of the disease.

As additional measures, physiotherapeutic procedures are used, which have a trophic and anti-inflammatory effect on tissues, as well as activate immune processes and improve blood supply in organs affected by infection. The main procedures that are used in chronic trichomoniasis are diathermy and inductothermy.

Traditional treatments for trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis in women. The disease is treated in a comprehensive manner, while tablets for internal use, candles, ointments and creams are prescribed. Also, agents are additionally used to improve the functioning of the immune system. Both sexual partners should be treated.


Most often, drugs from the nitroimidazole group are used to treat the disease. Their mechanism of action is to disrupt the DNA structure of sensitive microorganisms. They are quite effective and allow you to get rid of trichomoniasis within 7-14 days.

Trichomoniasis in women: symptoms, routes of transmission, treatment
Trichomoniasis in women: symptoms, routes of transmission, treatment

These drugs include:

  • Metronidazole (Trichopolum). There are different treatment regimens for trichomoniasis. You can take the agent 500 mg twice a day for 7 to 10 days. You can also get rid of the disease by consuming 2 g of the drug (4 tablets of 500 mg) per day for 5 days.
  • Tinidazole. In order to get rid of the disease, take 2 g of the drug (4 tablets of 500 mg) once a day. If necessary, tinidazole is prescribed again.
  • Ornidazole (Tiberal). After meals, take 1 tablet twice a day for 5 days.

When taking drugs, side effects from the digestive system are possible, in the form of nausea, stool disorder. Headache and dizziness may also occur.


Trichomoniasis in women: symptoms, routes of transmission, treatment
Trichomoniasis in women: symptoms, routes of transmission, treatment

In the complex treatment of trichomoniasis in women, suppositories or vaginal tablets are used:

  • Terzhinan. The preparation contains ternidazole, neomycin sulfate, nystatin, prednisolone sodium metasulfobenzoate. Before use, the tablet must be held in water for 30 seconds, then inserted deep into the vagina. Use the drug once a day for 10 days. It helps to eliminate not only trichomoniasis, but also vulvovaginitis and colpitis of bacterial or fungal origin.
  • Mikozhinaks. Combined drug, which includes metronidazole, chloramphenicol, dexamethasone and nystatin. Before inserting a vaginal tablet, it must be held in water. Apply the agent once a day for 10 to 12 days. If during this period the disease does not get rid of, the treatment is continued.
  • Neo-Penotran. Suppositories contain miconazole and metronidazole. They are inserted deep into the vagina once a day before going to bed for 2 weeks, or twice a day for a week.

Traditional medicine in the treatment of trichomoniasis, both in men and women, uses creams and gels and ointments with metronidazole (Metrogyl, Macmiror). For males, the drug is injected into the urethra, and for women, into the posterior fornix of the vagina.


Trichomoniasis in women. Nitroimidazole-based drugs are very effective in the treatment of the acute stage of trichomoniasis, but they cannot cope with the normalization of the vaginal environment. In order to create unfavorable conditions for the reproduction of Trichomonas, the SolcoTrichovac vaccine is used.

Trichomoniasis in women: symptoms, routes of transmission, treatment
Trichomoniasis in women: symptoms, routes of transmission, treatment

It is prepared from abnormal strains of lactobacilli. It restores normal microflora in the vagina, thereby creating unsuitable conditions for the reproduction of Trichomonas.

In order to provide one-year protection against the disease, 0.5 ml of SolcoTrichovac is administered 3 times intramuscularly with an interval of 14 days. A year later, revaccination of 0.5 ml of the drug is required once. When using the remedy, immunity increases, the normal flora of the vagina stabilizes, and pathogens disappear.

During the period of treatment, it is necessary to give up sexual activity. You should also refrain from drinking alcohol and eliminate all factors that lower the body's resistance.

Unconventional treatments

Trichomoniasis in women. Treatment of trichomoniasis with folk remedies is a rather long procedure. In order to get rid of the disease, you must follow all the recommendations. Complex treatment uses many methods. This is the use of infusions and decoctions for oral administration, as well as douching and baths.


For the preparation of decoctions and infusions, the following medicinal fees are used:

  • White birch leaves, rowan berries, yarrow grass, nettle leaves, corn silk, cold mint, knotweed grass, immortelle flowers.
  • Oak bark, linden flowers, raspberry leaves, goose finger grass.
  • Linden and black elderberry flowers, raspberry leaves, rose hips.
  • Yarrow, oak bark, chamomile flowers, rosemary, sage.
  • Calamus root, nettle leaves, buckthorn bark, thyme, St. John's wort.

All components are mixed in the same amount and stored in a linen bag in a dry, dark place. To prepare a medicinal infusion, 2 tablespoons of the collection are poured with half a liter of boiling water and placed in a thermos. In the morning, filter the infusion and consume 250 ml each morning and evening. The collection is changed every week. Alternative treatment should last for a month.

Douching and baths

Trichomoniasis in women: symptoms, routes of transmission, treatment
Trichomoniasis in women: symptoms, routes of transmission, treatment

To prepare solutions for douching, the following fees are used:

  • Chamomile flowers, calendula, sage leaves, white birch and oak bark.
  • Linden flowers, oak bark, bird highlander, chamomile flowers, rosemary.
  • Helichrysum flowers, calendula, chamomile, yarrow herb, oak bark.
  • Mallow and elderberry flowers, sage leaves and oak bark.
  • Melilotus officinalis, sage leaves, marshmallow root.

The plants are mixed in equal proportions. To prepare the product, an hour before the procedure, 20 g of one of the fees is poured into 700 ml of boiling water and insisted under the lid. Thoroughly filter before use. You need to douche once a day. The procedure is carried out for 10 days. For the period of menstruation, it is stopped.

Douching with medicinal infusions can be combined with the use of suppositories and vaginal tablets. Also, the products can be used for sitz baths or washing the external genitalia, both in men and women.


Trichomoniasis in women. In order to get rid of trichomoniasis, folk remedies are used in the form of tinctures, which help to fight this pathogenic microorganism and strengthen the immune system.

Trichomoniasis in women: symptoms, routes of transmission, treatment
Trichomoniasis in women: symptoms, routes of transmission, treatment

They are prepared as follows:

  • A glass of walnut partitions must be crushed with a coffee grinder. Pour 200 ml of vodka into the powder and leave in a dark place for a week. Strain and take 15 drops on an empty stomach. Continue treatment until the signs of the disease disappear.
  • Grind a glass of ripe viburnum berries and mix with the same amount of liquid honey. After the product has stood for a week in a dark place, it must be rubbed through a sieve and mixed with 100 ml of brandy. Take 5 ml in the morning and in the evening for three days, then 10 ml for 2 weeks.
  • Chop 4 large heads of garlic and pour 150 ml of vodka. Insist in a dark place for a week. Strain and take 15 drops twice a day for 2 weeks.


In order to improve the functioning of the immune system and get rid of trichomoniasis, natural juices are used. To soften the taste and make them healthier before consuming, you can add a little honey.

Trichomoniasis in women: symptoms, routes of transmission, treatment
Trichomoniasis in women: symptoms, routes of transmission, treatment

Trichomoniasis in women. The following natural helpers will help the treatment:

  • Cranberry juice. It quickly kills the protozoan parasites and is used not only to treat trichomoniasis, but also in diseases of the bladder. For its preparation, fresh berries are taken, which are squeezed out using a juicer. Dilute 100 ml of juice with the same amount of water and add honey. Drink in small sips using a cocktail straw. You need to take the remedy once a day, in the morning. You can not use cranberry juice for people with high acidity of the stomach. You can prepare the product from frozen berries. To do this, they are left at room temperature until they let the juice out.
  • Radish juice. In order to prepare it, the fruits of black radish are grated and squeezed out with gauze. Drink it in a tablespoon no more than three times a day. You cannot store ready-made juice; it must be prepared immediately before use. The finished product contains the necessary enzymes that kill Trichomonas.
  • Grate horseradish root and squeeze out the juice. First, it must be diluted in half with water. Take 20 ml in the morning and evening. Continue taking for at least 3 weeks.


In order to get rid of the disease, you can use tampons soaked in medicinal infusions or oils:

  • A tablespoon of oak bark is poured into 200 ml of boiling water and simmered over low heat for half an hour. Filter, soak a tampon with the agent and place it in the vagina overnight. The finished broth can be stored in the refrigerator for no more than 3 days.
  • 100 g of fresh sea buckthorn berries are turned into gruel and poured with the same amount of refined olive oil. Insist in the refrigerator for a week and grind through a sieve. A tampon with sea buckthorn oil is placed overnight. This continues for a week.
  • Cranberry juice is diluted with boiled chilled water in a ratio of 1 to 4. The tampon is soaked in this solution and placed in the vagina for 2 hours. The procedure is carried out once a day for a week.

Treatment with folk remedies allows you to avoid the negative effects of drugs on the body, but it is not a fact that it will allow you to get rid of the disease and prevent it from becoming chronic. If within a week after the start of the use of folk remedies or drugs, no positive effect is observed, consultation with the attending physician is necessary.

Prevention of trichomoniasis

Preventive measures imply an integrated approach aimed at protecting against possible infection not only with trichomoniasis, but also all sexually transmitted diseases, be it gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis and many others.

Prophylaxis should start with educational activities about a healthy lifestyle, the importance of contraceptive methods, and the transmission of infections that cause inflammatory diseases of the genital tract. These measures are primarily aimed at preventing the occurrence of infectious inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary organs in the categories of adolescents.

Medical workers, teachers in schools, professors in lyceums and universities are obliged to carry out educational activities in this direction among high school students, students of universities, vocational schools.

Preventive control by a gynecologist at least once a year, with taking smears from the urethra, posterior vaginal fornix, cervical canal. The contents of these places are subjected to microscopy, thereby determining the presence of a possible infection and at the same time determining the degree of purity of the vagina.

Categories of young and middle-aged people who are sexually active should be careful in choosing a sexual partner. Indiscriminate sex is not encouraged. An intimate relationship with one sexual partner is considered ideal.


Treatment of concomitant diseases of the genitourinary organs caused by other types of pathogenic microorganisms that reduce local immunity and increase the risk of perceiving Trichomonas infection.

An incomparably significant role in the spread of Trichomonas vaginalis is played by the simultaneous use of toiletries (washcloth, towel) by two or more persons, one of whom is sick with trichomoniasis. Therefore, it is necessary for each person to have their own body care products and use them individually.

An important role is played by the use of condoms, as a means of preventing unwanted pregnancy and transmission of Trichomonas infection during sexual intercourse.

In preparation for pregnancy, you should be tested for the possible presence of a hidden current infection of the urinary tract, both for a woman and a man. And also consult your doctor about this. When planning a pregnancy, it is necessary to cure all possible foci of infection in a woman's body.

Find out more:

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