Toxoplasmosis In Women: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

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Toxoplasmosis In Women: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment
Toxoplasmosis In Women: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Video: Toxoplasmosis In Women: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Video: Toxoplasmosis In Women: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment
Video: Toxoplasmosis | Acquired vs Congenital | Signs, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment 2023, December

Toxoplasmosis in women is a type of parasitic infection belonging to the class of zoonoses caused by the corresponding microorganisms that lead a parasitic lifestyle inside the body. The causative agent is recognized as a bacterium of the same name - toxoplasmosis gondia - the simplest sporozoa, ranked among the order of coccidia. Outwardly, the parasite under a microscope looks like an oval or round, often slightly curved in the form of a crescent, a bacterium, moving in fast sliding impulses.

The content of the article:

  • 1 What is toxoplasmosis
  • 2 Varieties of toxoplasmosis
  • 3 Formation of a diagnosis for toxoplasmosis
  • 4 Symptoms and signs of toxoplasmosis in adults
  • 5 Acute toxoplasmosis in adults
  • 6 Cerebral toxoplasmosis (toxoplasmosis of the brain) in adults
  • 7 Congenital toxoplasmosis
  • 8 Ocular toxoplasmosis in adults
  • 9 Most common toxoplasmosis in adults
  • 10 Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis
  • 11 Toxoplasmosis in women
  • 12 Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in women
  • 13 In what cases is toxoplasmosis dangerous in women
  • 14 Treatment of toxoplasmosis in women
  • 15 Treatment of toxoplasmosis in adults
  • 16 Complications and prognosis in toxoplasmosis disease
  • 17 Prevention of toxoplasmosis infection

What is toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease that affects both animals and humans. This infection is characterized by a plurality of transmission mechanisms, a diverse clinical picture, in addition, it can occur in a latent (latent), acute or chronic form.

Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women
Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women

Toxoplasmosis in women is detected in different climatic and geographical zones. The seasonality of the disease is not pronounced.

Among infectious diseases caused by protozoa, toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread and most dangerous for expectant mothers. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the world is incredibly high, mainly due to the countries of Africa, as well as Latin and South America, in which the infection rate of the population reaches 90%.

Rates in Europe and North America are below 25-50 percent of the population. Russia occupies the average position in Europe; up to 30% of the country's population is infected, approximately one infant in a thousand is infected with toxoplasmosis.

Toxoplasmosis is an insidious disease. It can be completely invisible and cause unpleasant complications during pregnancy. It can cause severe visual impairment or seizures. That is why it is better to know everything about toxoplasmosis. This is especially important if there is a cat or dog in the house, because pets are often very close to us, they need to be properly looked after, and if necessary, treated

Varieties of toxoplasmosis

Depending on the time of infection, Toxoplasmosis in women is divided into:

  • acquired - the patient becomes infected with it throughout life; congenital differs in that it infects the fetus from the mother
  • intrauterine (this is fraught with severe deformities and even death).

Acquired toxoplasmosis, in turn, is subdivided into: chronic - the clinic is growing gradually, the signs of the disease are hardly noticeable; an acute form is always an abrupt onset with severe symptoms.

Toxoplasmosis in women is also classified in relation to the organ system affected by it into the following types:

  • meningoencephalic (damage to the nervous system, complaints of headaches);
  • ocular with visual impairment;
  • lymphatic, in which enlarged lymph nodes are found;
  • generalized when there is a defeat of several systems;
  • cardiac - with attacks of shortness of breath, general weakness and pain in the heart.

Formation of a diagnosis for toxoplasmosis

Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women
Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women

When forming a detailed diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, the following should be indicated: the form of toxoplasmosis (acquired, congenital); the nature of the course of the process (acute, subacute, chronic, inapparent); organ or systemic pathology; severity of the course.

For example: acute acquired toxoplasmosis, lymphadenopathy, mild course; chronic acquired toxoplasmosis with predominant eye damage, chorioretinitis without exacerbation; pregnancy 24–26 weeks, inapparent toxoplasmosis.

When forming a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis only on systemic or organ pathology (lymphadenopathic, cerebral, myocarditis, ocular form, etc.) is inappropriate, because toxoplasmosis must be considered as a general process involving many organs and systems.

If toxoplasmosis is excluded and a patient with positive reactions to toxoplasmosis is exposed to another diagnosis, the existing carriage of toxoplasma should also be noted in the medical history.

Symptoms and signs of toxoplasmosis in adults

As a rule, after infection with toxoplasma in healthy adults (with no other diseases), the symptoms of toxoplasmosis are invisible.

The disease is more severe in children infected during intrauterine development and in people whose immune system is weakened by AIDS, cancer, taking drugs that suppress immunity, etc.

There are several main forms of toxoplasmosis: acute toxoplasmosis, toxoplasmosis of the central nervous system, congenital toxoplasmosis, ocular toxoplasmosis, and common toxoplasmosis.

Acute toxoplasmosis in adults

Acute toxoplasmosis in adults with no other medical conditions is usually asymptomatic.

Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women
Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women

However, in rare cases, the following symptoms may appear:

  • an increase in the size of the axillary lymph nodes is the most common sign of toxoplasmosis. Enlarged lymph nodes are felt as rounded dense formations in the armpit. There may be an increase in other groups of lymph nodes (cervical, submandibular, inguinal, etc.);
  • an increase in body temperature up to 38-39 C;
  • weakness, muscle pain;
  • an increase in the size of the liver and / or spleen, which is manifested by a dull pain in the right side (in the right hypochondrium);
  • often the disease proceeds unnoticed by the patient and goes away on its own without treatment within one to two weeks.

Cerebral toxoplasmosis (toxoplasmosis of the brain) in adults

Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women
Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women

Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a form of toxoplasmosis that occurs with inflammation of the brain.

In persons whose immunity is weakened by AIDS and other diseases, toxoplasma is deposited in the nervous system, leading to the appearance of characteristic symptoms:

  • severe weakness, headaches;
  • increased body temperature;
  • loss of sensitivity in various areas of the body;
  • feeling of running "goose bumps" on the body;
  • paralysis - the inability to move certain parts of the body;
  • coma - complete permanent loss of consciousness.

Congenital toxoplasmosis

Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women
Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women

Congenital toxoplasmosis develops as a result of the transmission of infection from the mother to the fetus through the placenta during pregnancy. Intrauterine infection of the fetus with toxoplasmosis can cause spontaneous miscarriage, intrauterine fetal death, etc.

Babies with congenital toxoplasmosis (infected from the mother during pregnancy) are difficult to tolerate and often die shortly after birth. In some cases, symptoms of congenital toxoplasmosis are subtle and appear at a later age.

The main symptoms of congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns are:

  • deafness;
  • jaundice - yellowing of the skin of the body, sclera of the eyes, mucous membranes of the mouth;
  • the appearance of a rash on the skin in the form of reddish nodules;
  • an increase in the size of the liver and spleen;
  • disproportionately large or, conversely, small sizes of the newborn's head;
  • delayed psychomotor development of the child.

Ocular toxoplasmosis in adults

Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women
Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women

The ocular form of toxoplasmosis, as a rule, is a consequence of congenital toxoplasmosis with late manifestations (in adolescents and young people). The main symptoms of ocular toxoplasmosis are: pain in the eyes; decreased visual acuity; "Fog" before the eyes; sensation of "flashes" before the eyes; blindness.

Most common toxoplasmosis in adults

A common form of toxoplasmosis without damage to the eyes and brain, as a rule, develops in people with very weak immunity (late stages of AIDS, after long courses of chemotherapy, etc.).

The manifestations of this form of toxoplasmosis are different, as they are caused by inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis), lungs (pneumonia), muscles (myositis), etc. The inflamed organs can stop functioning, which threatens the patient's life.

Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis

The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis can be made on the basis of:

  • analysis of complaints (if any) of weakness, headache, fever, swollen lymph nodes, visual impairment and medical history (when the disease appeared, and what is the reason for the appearance of symptoms);
  • life history analysis (past illnesses, bad habits, the presence of pets, working conditions (contact with raw meat), food addictions);
  • examination data - the doctor can detect an increase in lymph nodes, liver and spleen, visual impairment;
  • general data (inflammatory changes in the blood can be detected) and biochemical (signs of liver dysfunction can be detected) blood tests;
  • the results of detecting antibodies in the blood to toxoplasma (special protein substances that are secreted by the cells of the immune system to destroy the infection) by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay);
  • results of PCR diagnostics (polymerase chain reaction) - a high-precision method that allows you to detect toxoplasma genes in the blood;
  • the results of the reaction with toxoplasmin (introduction of a weakened pathogen of toxoplasmosis under the skin on the forearm). A positive reaction (redness and swelling around the injection site) indicates that the body is familiar with the infection, that is, the person has already had toxoplasmosis. A very pronounced reaction may indicate that at the moment the person is sick. If the reaction is negative (there are no changes at the injection site of toxoplasmin), then the body has not encountered this infection, and there is a risk of infection;
  • the results of bacteriological blood culture (a drop of blood is placed in a special environment favorable for the growth of toxoplasma, after which they are examined under a microscope).

It is also possible to consult a therapist.

Toxoplasmosis in women

Toxoplasmosis in women is an infectious disease caused by toxoplasma. It proceeds very easily, even imperceptibly, if the woman is not pregnant.

Toxoplasmosis in expectant mothers causes serious fetal malformations, possibly termination of pregnancy.

If the infection occurred while expecting a child, the woman is prescribed antibiotics. The question of whether it is required to terminate the pregnancy due to the appearance of anomalies in the baby is decided in each case individually.

Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in women

Toxoplasmosis in women. In order to determine whether a pregnant woman is infected with toxoplasmosis or not, a serological blood test is performed. The doctor is faced with the difficult task of not only detecting an infection in the body, but also determining whether it is old or fresh. To find out, a healthcare professional determines the presence of immunoglobulins of class G and M (IgM, IgG).

Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women
Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women

The norm of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is the presence of a stable IgG indicator and the absence of IgM antibodies. If there is only class M immunoglobulins in the blood, this means that the infection has occurred very recently. Such a situation for a woman in a position is extremely unfavorable. If the period is short, then a miscarriage is possible.

If this does not happen, then doctors recommend terminating the pregnancy, as the baby will have serious health problems. At a later date, treatment is carried out.

If, when analyzing for Toxoplasmosis in women during pregnancy, immunoglobulins of both classes are found, then this indicates that the woman has been infected for a long time, and the infection has been in the body for about a year. In this case, a re-examination is recommended after several weeks.

Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women
Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women

When examined, immunoglobulins may not be detected at all. A pregnant woman will need to observe all precautions throughout the entire period, because she has not previously had toxoplasmosis, and she has no immunity to this disease.

Often, during the analysis, the doctor states the presence of class G immunoglobulins and the absence of class M immunoglobulins. This indicates that the infection was previously in the body, but now immunity has been developed to it.

Antibodies to toxoplasmosis during pregnancy remain in the body for many years (about 10 years). Thus, a meeting with an infection does not threaten anything at all.

In what cases is toxoplasmosis dangerous in women

According to statistics, 65% of the world's population may be carriers of toxoplasmosis. Women are at risk, men get sick three times less often. This unicellular parasite affects the central nervous system, liver, lungs, organs of vision, as well as the fetus if the pregnant woman is infected.

Therefore, it is important to identify the symptoms of toxoplasmosis in women as early as possible and immediately begin treatment, because the expectant mother is able to infect her baby during childbirth. Therefore, an analysis for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women is mandatory.

Toxoplasmosis in women. Problems appear when a woman's illness begins during pregnancy. If the expectant mother has had toxoplasmosis more than six months before conception, nothing threatens the child - protective antibodies have already been developed in her body.

Infection with toxoplasma during pregnancy can lead to the fact that they will be passed on to the baby, and at an earlier stage this probability is lower, but the consequences can be more serious: there is a threat to the child's life, the development of premature birth, and if the pregnancy can be preserved, congenital toxoplasmosis can lead to a violation of the formation of the baby's nervous system.

Since in a situation of infection with toxoplasmosis in the first and second trimester of pregnancy, children often experience serious developmental abnormalities, sometimes the question of termination of pregnancy arises.

Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women
Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women

Of course, in an ideal situation, tests for toxoplasmosis should be taken not after its onset, but the day before: the examination will show that the woman's body has antibodies to infection, and in this case, there is no need to fear infection of the child, or it will determine that they are not there.

If antibodies to toxoplasmosis are not found, you will need to try to prevent infection: avoid poorly cooked meat, thoroughly wash raw vegetables and fruits, as well as cutting boards and utensils that have come into contact with raw meat, wear gloves when gardening and cleaning cat litter.

If, when planning a pregnancy, an analysis for antibodies to toxoplasmosis shows that the infection has occurred recently (this is evidenced by the presence of immunoglobulins of class M - IgM), then the risk of transmitting the infection to the child still exists, and conception should be postponed.

Treatment of toxoplasmosis in women

Treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women is mandatory. The doctor, having diagnosed the disease, determines the scheme and duration of the upcoming treatment.

Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women
Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis in women

It is worth noting that toxoplasmosis can be treated from 12-16 weeks. However, doctors advise sick women to terminate a pregnancy if its term is less than 24 weeks.

This is due to the fact that antibiotics are used to treat the disease. In the early stages, the harmful effects of drugs on the fetus cannot be avoided.

Most often, doctors prescribe to their patients a drug that is highly effective. Rovamycin significantly reduces the risk of passing the infection to the child. In addition, this antibiotic is well tolerated by most women.

All drugs for toxoplasmosis and pregnancy are taken only as directed by a doctor. You do not need to self-medicate.

Treatment of toxoplasmosis in adults

Treatment of toxoplasmosis can be carried out by doctors of different specialties: in the acute acquired form - an infectious disease specialist, in congenital - a pediatrician, in the presence of eye pathology - an ophthalmologist, etc.

During treatment, parasiticidal drugs are used, for example, chloridine (daraprim, tindurin, pyrematine). It is prescribed in conjunction with sulfanilamines, as they enhance the effect of chloridine. In case of intolerance to the latter, aminochol or clindamycin with pyrometamine is used.

Toxoplasmosis in women. For pregnant women, spiramycin is prescribed. In parallel, the following are prescribed: antiallergic agents; toxoplasminotherapy; immunity stimulants.

In case of damage to the brain and eyes, it is necessary to take glucocorticoids (prednisolone, hydrocortisone). The duration of treatment depends on the severity, severity and form of the disease and can range from four weeks to a year.

Complications and prognosis in toxoplasmosis disease

In patients without immunodeficiency (HIV infection, cancer and others), the prognosis is usually favorable.

The complications of toxoplasmosis in the absence of treatment or incorrect therapy include: disorders of brain functions; the development of cardiovascular failure (arrhythmias); blindness; anemia.

Prevention of toxoplasmosis infection

Toxoplasmosis in women. Preventive actions:

  • exclude thermally unprocessed meat and fish from your diet. It is not recommended to eat sushi during pregnancy, because it is in the products from which this dish is prepared that parasites that cause toxoplasmosis may be contained;
  • do not taste raw minced meat. Many hostesses, when preparing food, try minced meat for taste. Thus, they put themselves at risk of contracting toxoplasmosis during pregnancy;
  • wash hands thoroughly after contact with a domestic cat, cleaning its toilet, cooking meat dishes, working in the garden or garden;
  • wash vegetables, herbs, fruits, berries thoroughly;
  • examine a domestic cat for parasites of toxoplasmosis and, if necessary, cure it. It is best to get rid of the animal for a while by giving it to parents or friends;
  • not to visit relatives, friends and acquaintances who have a cat at home.

Find out more:

  • Toxoplasmosis - treatment with medicines and folk remedies
  • Toxoplasmosis - symptoms and treatment methods for the disease
  • Toxoplasmosis in humans: signs, symptoms and treatment