Table of contents:
- What are worms
- How can you get infected with worms
- Symptoms of worms in adults
- Tablets for worms during pregnancy
- Treatment of worms in an adult
- Preparations for worms for an adult
- Worms in an adult - prevention
Video: Worms In An Adult: Signs, Symptoms And Treatment Regimen
2023 Author: Riley Dean | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 09:15
Worms in an adult are not uncommon. They enter the body through food, contaminated water, and in contact with infected people. Diagnostics and treatment of helminthic invasions will help prevent the dangerous consequences of the disease. As you know, parasites destroy the body from the inside, thereby delivering a lot of unpleasant symptoms to a sick person.
The content of the article:
- 1 What are worms
2 How can you get infected with worms
- 2.1 Infection with worms through the soil
- 2.2 Infection with worms from person to person
- 2.3 Infection with worms through water
- 3 Symptoms of worms in adults
- 4 Tablets for worms during pregnancy
- 5 Treatment of worms in an adult
- 6 Preparations for worms for an adult
- 7 Worms in an adult - prevention
What are worms
Worms are parasites of humans and animals belonging to the class of flat or round worms. Worms have a fairly common structure.
In their own development, worms traditionally go through several stages: testicle - larva - adult. Most of all, human infection with worms occurs when he swallows the eggs of the worms.
From the swallowed eggs in the human intestinal tract, larvae quickly hatch, which begin to migrate to the place of their permanent life, where they are transformed into adults. In the process of movement, almost all helminths make true "travel" through the human body.
Only a few parasites (for example, pinworms) hatch from eggs in the intestinal tract, remain there. Usually, the destruction of tissues and organs and the symptoms caused by larvae and other developing forms of helminths during movement are the most pronounced, in comparison with the symptoms are caused by mature forms of parasites.
Worms in an adult. In the lungs, ascaris larvae grow and mature. The growing larva slowly gnaws into the adjoining bronchi and crawls along them, first into the trachea, and then into the oral cavity, where it is again swallowed and carried away into the intestinal tract.
As we said above, adult worms traditionally have a stable localization in the body, and their developing forms more often migrate to different organs and tissues, while their path of movement is often rather complicated.
For example, with ascariasis, a person becomes infected by eating foods contaminated with worm eggs (ascaris eggs ripen in the ground). In the cavity of the intestinal tract, larvae hatch from ascaris eggs, which, within a couple of hours, enter the blood vessels through the wall of the intestinal tract and are carried into the lungs with blood flow.
The roundworm larva, which has again entered the intestinal tract, is transformed into an adult worm. Pulmonary migration of ascaris larvae is manifested by an abundance of symptoms (cough, asthma attacks, an increase in body temperature, an allergic rash on the skin), and the presence of a small number of adult worms in the intestinal tract may not be manifested in any way.
How can you get infected with worms
How do worms get into the human body? There are 4 main sources of helminth eggs in the body:
- Geohelminthiases: through the soil (and then water), which contains mature eggs of many helminths, which penetrate the ground with human or animal feces, as well as through direct contact with animals and through the transfer of eggs by flies to food.
- Contact: such well-known and most common worms as pinworms are transmitted from person to person, this is the highest risk of infection.
- Biohelminthiases: when eating raw, semi-raw or slightly thermally processed meat (pork, beef) or fish infected with helminths (sushi, shish kebab, dried fish, lard with veins of meat, etc.)
Some parasites enter the body through insect bites.
The main mechanism of any infection is most often oral-fecal, that is, a person simply swallows the eggs of the worm together with food, water, less often some helminthic infestations occur when infected insects bite. It is clear with uncooked meat and raw fish, but how can you get infected with worms by contact and everyday life and through the soil?
Infection with worms through the soil
After any contact with the ground, sand, you should not just wash your hands, but thoroughly clean your nails, it is better to have short-cut nails, especially for children. Food products that grow in the ground - vegetables, herbs, fruits, berries, mushrooms, everything related to the ground requires thorough washing under running water and scalding with boiling water.
Pets, primarily dogs and cats, walking on the street, bring a lot of sewage into the house, and children playing with them are at the maximum risk of infection, the animal can easily infect it with any kind of helminths.
Flies are also the main carriers of helminths, being in public toilets, places where agricultural livestock live, flies then calmly sit on food, spreading eggs on their wings and legs.
Infection with worms from person to person
With pinworms, infection of others occurs very easily. When a female pinworm crawls out of the intestines at night, she lays about 5,000 eggs near the anus, which causes severe itching, the child, combing the itchy place, sows them on his hands, nails, panties, bed linen.
Without washing his hands at once, hundreds of eggs remain on all the objects he touches - doorknobs, clothes, food, toys. Further, the process of infection is understandable, eggs also settle on the hands of another child or adult using these objects, and without washing their hands before eating, they enter the mouth of a healthy person.
Worm infection through water
A huge number of worm eggs fall into open water bodies, into well water. Therefore, those who live in rural areas or in the country should use a bactericidal filter and be sure to boil water; it is also dangerous to swallow water when swimming in open water.
Everyone knows that worms are mainly a problem for children, because they are most susceptible to the development of helminthiasis, since the protective barriers in the child's body are not formed properly, the acidity of the stomach is lower than that of an adult.
Preschool kids, mastering the world, taste all the surrounding objects not only with their hands, but also with their taste. And parents, with all their might, can teach their child to strictly follow the rules of personal hygiene, without reminders, only by 3-6 years, which puts at risk of infection (pinworms) not only for the baby himself, but also for all family members.
Eggs laid by adults must leave the body either with feces, or (in the case of pinworms) on the skin near the anus, into the external environment, into the soil, and only then, having matured outside the human body and getting into it again, they begin to activate and parasitize.
Worms in an adult. It should be remembered that no worms can reproduce and multiply in the human body, each species has its own period of time after which they die, for example, in pinworms it is only a few weeks, in ascaris about a year.
Since worms cannot multiply in the human body, an increase in the number of adults in the intestines of an already infected person is possible only with re-infection, when the eggs again enter the body through the mouth.
That is, if we exclude re-infection, which is possible only if strict rules of hygiene and some preventive measures are not followed, then in the case of pinworms, for example, a person could get rid of worms in 3-4 weeks without any treatment. But it is not so easy to follow these rules for kids and children of primary school age.
Symptoms of worms in adults
Signs of infection directly depend on the localization of worms in the body. The largest colonies of parasites - roundworms, pinworms, tapeworms - are in the intestines, however, some of the helminths are able to move through the body.
For example, roundworms can first enter the stomach, and from there, with the blood stream, enter the lungs or liver. There they develop within three weeks, after which they again enter the intestines or stomach.
Pinworms are often located in the anus, causing severe itching. In women, they can also be localized in the genitals. Parasites such as feline fluke and liver fluke often live in the liver and pancreas.
Echinococci are capable of infecting muscles and bones, and tapeworms even penetrate the brain. Also, some types of helminths can be in the respiratory system, causing a persistent cough.
Depending on the localization, the following manifestations of helminthiasis occur:
- Constipation: Large worms can obstruct the intestinal lumen, causing stool disturbance. Constipation can last for more than two days.
- Diarrhea: Some parasites produce a substance that stimulates the body to release undigested food debris along with plenty of water.
- Flatulence: Certain types of helminths provoke bloating in the small intestine, resulting in excess gas formation. If you do not get rid of the worms in time, flatulence can last up to several months.
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Helminths can cause inflammation in the intestines, resulting in poor absorption of nutrients and irregular bowel movements.
- Pain in muscles and joints: worms can be localized in any part of the body. If they get into joints or muscles, they begin to destroy their tissues. As a result, painful sensations arise, which are the body's reaction to the vital activity of the parasite.
- Allergies:. excretion of helminths can cause the body to produce special cells - eosinophils. They lead to tissue inflammation, which causes the development of allergic reactions.
- Skin diseases: as a result, a person develops acne, wrinkles, hives, acne and even papillomas. Sometimes helminth infestation leads to increased fragility of nails and hair.
- Anemia: certain types of worms are able to stick to the intestinal walls, receiving from it not only nutrients, but also blood. As a result, a person develops anemia.
- Weight change; most often, helminth infestation leads to dramatic weight loss. The fact is that parasites absorb a significant amount of nutrients that enter the human body with food. In addition, the presence of helminthic invasion often leads to loss of appetite. However, in some cases, an increase in body weight is observed in a person - this process is a protective reaction of the body to the release of worms.
- Immune system disorders: Helminth infestation can cause immune disorders. As a result, a person is much more likely to suffer from viral diseases. He may develop allergic reactions to familiar foods. In the intestine, dysbiosis or colitis often develops, and acne and herpes appear on the face.
- Problems in the functioning of the nervous system; the presence of worms in the body negatively affects the state of the nervous system. As a result, a person develops anxiety, anxiety and even depression.
- Sleep disturbances: If a person wakes up every night in the middle of sleep, this may indicate a helminthic invasion. It is at this time that the liver is cleared of toxins produced by helminths. Usually at night, parasites can leave the body through the anus, and this process is accompanied by a sensation of severe itching.
- Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: This condition manifests itself in the form of depression, apathy, weakness. The reason for this problem lies in the lack of nutrients in the body. A person may experience memory impairment, emotional stress.
- Oncological pathologies: helminths can poison the body so badly that the immune system simply cannot cope with this process. As a result, various complications develop, including those favoring the appearance of malignant tumors.
- Inflammatory process in the respiratory tract: helminths can move freely through various organs, and, of course, the respiratory system is no exception. If the worms block the airways, breathing may be difficult. Also, a person often has a cough and body temperature rises. A rather dangerous complication of helminthiasis is the development of bronchial asthma.
Tablets for worms during pregnancy
The fact that every person can have worms is a well-known fact, especially in weakened people. Even if parasites are found in a pregnant woman, taking medications in the 1st trimester is contraindicated. The drugs are so toxic that the drugs themselves can cause more harm, and not the helminthic invasion.
Tablets for worms during pregnancy can only be taken as prescribed by a doctor and only Piperazine is allowed for use: with roundworms - 2 r / day for 1 hour or 1 hour after eating for 2 days in a row, dose 1.5-2g; with pinworms - the same dose for 5 days in a row, then a week break, 1-3 courses of therapy.
Worms in an adult. Do not worry if pinworms are found in a pregnant woman. If you follow the rules of personal hygiene, even if infected with these helminths, self-healing is possible, since pinworms live only a few weeks.
If, after infection, hygiene is not observed, the risk of self-infection (reinfection) is very high, and careful hygiene and steaming of underwear will save a pregnant woman from taking toxic drugs from worms.
Therefore, in order to avoid infection or reinfection with worms, you should:
- wash hands thoroughly with soap after using the toilet;
- wash your hands after changing your underwear;
- just before a meal (even a snack);
- after contact with animals;
- wash vegetables and fruits thoroughly.
Treatment of worms in an adult
It is safe to say that modern people are very lucky, because they have a whole anthelmintic arsenal at their service - these are effective means intended for adults and children, taking into account the characteristics of various organisms and effectively destroying any kind of parasites.
What are the best worm pills? It is very difficult to give an answer to this question, you don't even have to try, because each case is unique.
Often, drugs, the names of which are on everyone's lips, turn out to be powerless, and very simple and cheap drugs win.
In any case, even the best pills should be drunk only when prescribed by a doctor. The drug taken should be as safe as possible for humans, because it usually contains toxic substances.
Preparations for worms for an adult
Which pills work best? This question is asked by all patients. Therefore, let's talk a little about the most popular and, in the opinion of doctors and patients, effective options.
- Fed: if you drink the course according to all the rules, you can get rid of a wide list of helminths. Indispensable for mixed invasions. The tablet must be chewed before swallowing. It is also important to do this while drinking plenty of fluids. Treatment can last anywhere from three to five days.
- Vermox: Handles roundworms well. The entire course can be three days or more, depending on the specific parasite. Trichinosis takes longer to heal than in other cases.
- Pirantel: an excellent tool that allows you to remove from the body not only mature individuals, but also larvae. Unfortunately, many medications cannot do this, so often a complete recovery does not occur, you have to repeat the courses several times. Pirantel "is a suspension, it is approved for use in children from six months, and the selected form of release makes it easy and convenient to give the remedy to babies.
- Nemosol: allows you to get rid of a wide range of parasites. There is only one tablet in the package, in some cases it is enough to get the result. However, doctors often prescribe the application for a week. There is also an option in the form of a suspension.
- Decaris: destroys roundworms, pinworms, whipworms. Do not give to children before they reach the age of three. Also contraindicated in pregnancy. May cause uterine bleeding.
- Albendazole: Kills a wide range of parasites. Allowed for adults and children of two years. Many people believe that for worms it is best to immediately take pills with a wide spectrum of action. They are active against a very large number of parasites, however, they do not always manage to cope with all of them. Therefore, assigning them to this category should not be misleading. You cannot take potent pills on your own, only a specialist is able to determine whether they are suitable and whether they will harm.
Worms in an adult - prevention
Worms are parasites that can be effectively protected from if you strictly follow certain rules of conduct in everyday life. So what should prevention be like?
Of particular importance is strict adherence to the principles of hygiene, which means not only frequent hand washing, but also the daily change of linen and frequent disinfection of clothes, bed linen and towels.
Worms in an adult. In addition, you should avoid consuming raw fruits and vegetables of unknown origin, otherwise they must be thoroughly washed under cold water. In addition, you should not drink raw water, especially from a well or from a well - invasive eggs of parasites feel very well in water.
Taking care of domestic animals, which may be carriers of this disease, is of great importance in the prevention of infection with worms. Remember to regularly remove parasites from your pets.
Helminth eggs are also often found on objects that have mites - this applies primarily to blankets, pillowcases and feather bedding, as well as carpets and rugs.
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