Table of contents:
- Medicinal product Ornidazole
- Composition and release form of the drug Ornidazole
- Pharmacological properties of Ornidazole
- Pharmacokinetics of Ornidazole
- Indications for use of Ornidazole
- Dosage and administration of the drug Ornidazole
- Trichomoniasis treatment with Ornidazole
- Ornidazole with demodicosis
- Ornidazole for giardiasis
- Ornidazole with ureaplasmosis
- How to take Ornidazole
- Ornidazole dosage
- Interaction of Ornidazole with alcohol
- Ornidazole medicine for children
- The use of Ornidazole during pregnancy and lactation
- Drug interactions of Ornidazalone
- Ornidazalon's analogs
- Special instructions when using Ornidazole
- Terms of sale and storage of Ornidazalone
Video: Ornidazole - Indications For Use And Instructions For The Drug
Ornidazole is a drug that can be prescribed for giardiasis, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis, ureaplasmosis, demodicosis and other infectious diseases. The drug Ornidazole is prescribed for the prevention of complications after gynecological operations and interventions on the large intestine.
The content of the article:
- 1 Medicinal product Ornidazole
- 2 Composition and release form of the drug Ornidazole
- 3 Pharmacological properties of Ornidazole
- 4 Pharmacokinetics of Ornidazole
- 5 Indications for use of Ornidazole
6 Method of administration and dosage of the drug Ornidazole
- 6.1 Ornidazole tablets
- 6.2 Suppositories Ornidazole
- 6.3 Ornidazole solution
- 7 Treatment of trichomoniasis with Ornidazole
- 8 Ornidazole with demodicosis
- 9 Ornidazole for giardiasis
- 10 Ornidazole with ureaplasmosis
- 11 How to take Ornidazole
- 12 Ornidazole dosage
- 13 Interaction of Ornidazole with alcohol
- 14 Medicine Ornidazole for children
- 15 Use of Ornidazole during pregnancy and lactation
- 16 Ornidazalone drug interactions
- 17 Ornidazalon's analogs
- 18 Special instructions when using Ornidazole
- 19 Terms of sale and storage of Ornidazalone
Medicinal product Ornidazole
Ornidazole is a drug that acts on anaerobic microbes (develop and multiply without oxygen) and protozoa. The effect on the simplest pathogens of diseases is called antiprotozoal action.
The mechanism of action of Ornidazole is based on the effect of the drug on the DNA of bacteria, as a result of which there is a violation of the reproduction of microorganisms. Sensitivity to the drug is shown by such anaerobic microorganisms as fusobacteria, clostridia, bacteroids, anaerobic cocci.
Aerobic microorganisms (develop and multiply only in the presence of oxygen) are insensitive to Ornidazole. Of the protozoa, Trichomonas, lamblia, ticks, gardnerella, ureaplasma, and dysentery amoeba are sensitive to Ornidazole. The maximum concentration of the drug in the blood is reached within 1-2 hours after taking the drug.
Revealed sensitivity to Ornidazole of some strains of Helicobacter pylori (a microorganism that causes peptic ulcer disease). Ornidazole is well (about 90%) and rapidly absorbed in the digestive tract. Penetrates through the placental barrier, into the cerebrospinal fluid, into breast milk.
In addition, the drug has a toxic effect on microbes, disrupting the process of their cellular respiration.
This explains the bacteriostatic (reproduction stops) and bactericidal action (death of microorganisms) Ornidazole.
Composition and release form of the drug Ornidazole
Officially, manufacturers offer consumers 3 dosage forms of this drug, but mainly tablets are presented in pharmacies.
Film- coated tablets of white or almost white color, round, biconvex; on a cross-section, a tablet is white or almost white. Excipients: lactose monohydrate - 101 mg, microcrystalline cellulose - 42 mg, croscarmellose sodium - 25 mg, povidone K30 - 14 mg, colloidal silicon dioxide - 7 mg, calcium stearate - 7 mg, sodium lauryl sulfate - 4 mg.
The composition of the film shell: (hypromellose - 15 mg, talc - 5 mg, titanium dioxide - 2.75 mg, macrogol 4000 (polyethylene glycol 4000) - 2.25 mg) or (dry mixture for a film coating containing hypromellose - 60%, talc - 20%, titanium dioxide - 11%, macrogol 4000 (polyethylene glycol 4000) - 9%) - 25 mg. 5 pieces. - contour cell packages (2) - cardboard packs.
Alternative forms of release are
The capsules have a gelatinous shell and are available as Ornidazole-Astrafarm. Solution - used for intravenous injections, available in pharmacies in a volume of 100 ml.
For all variations of this drug, the main active ingredient is ornidazole, the concentration of which is the same everywhere. Tablets and capsules contain 500 mg, in solution - 5 mg per ml.
Pharmacological properties of Ornidazole
Antiprotozoal drug with antibacterial activity. The mechanism of action consists in the biochemical reduction of the 5-nitro group of ornidazole by intracellular transport proteins of anaerobic microorganisms and protozoa. Active against obligate anaerobic microorganisms: gram-positive microorganisms.
After penetration of the drug into the microbial cell, the mechanism of its action is due to the restoration of the nitro group under the influence of nitroreductases of the microorganism and the activity of the already reduced nitroimidazole.
According to the mechanism of action, ornidazole is a DNA-tropic drug with selective activity against microorganisms that have enzyme systems capable of reducing the nitro group and catalyzing the interaction of proteins of the feridoxin group with nitro compounds.
The reduction products form complexes with DNA, causing its degradation, disrupt the processes of DNA replication and transcription.
In addition, the metabolic products of the drug have a cytotoxic property and disrupt the processes of cellular respiration.
The reduced 5-nitro group of ornidazole interacts with the DNA of a cell of microorganisms, causes a violation of its spiral structure, breaks of filaments, suppresses the synthesis of nucleic acids and causes the death of microbial and protozoan cells.
Pharmacokinetics of Ornidazole
Absorption: after oral administration, ornidazole is rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Absorption is about 90%. Cmax in plasma is reached within 3 hours.
Distribution: The connection of ornidazole with proteins is about 13%. Penetrates into cerebrospinal fluid, other body fluids and tissues. Plasma concentrations of ornidazole are in the range of 6-36 mg / l. After repeated administration of a dose of 500 mg or 1000 mg every 12 hours, the cumulation coefficient was 1.5-2.5.
Metabolism: Ornidazole is metabolized in the liver to form mainly 2-hydroxymethyl and α-hydroxymethylmetabolites. Both metabolites are less active against Trichomoinas vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria than unchanged ornidazole.
Excretion: T1 / 2 is about 13 hours. After a single dose, 85% of the dose is excreted during the first 5 days, mainly in the form of metabolites. About 4% of the dose taken is excreted through the kidneys unchanged, and 20-25% - by the intestines.
Indications for use of Ornidazole
It is used to treat infectious diseases, the causative agents of which are sensitive to the action of the drug:
- giardiasis; trichomoniasis; amebiasis (amoebic dysentery, extraintestinal amebiasis, amoebic abscess of the brain and liver);
- bacterial vaginosis; ulcer of the stomach and 12 duodenal ulcer;
- ureaplasmosis; demodicosis (skin disease caused by ticks).
For prophylactic purposes, Ornidazole is prescribed to prevent postoperative complications.
Ornidazole is prescribed to identify complications after surgery caused by anaerobic pathogens, in particular, after gynecological and colon surgeries.
Dosage and administration of the drug Ornidazole
In order to prevent infections during gynecological operations and surgical interventions on the gastrointestinal tract, 1 tablet / capsule is prescribed in the morning and evening the day before the procedure and the next day after it.
According to the official instructions, the use of Ornidazole can be: intravenous; oral administration (after meals with warm water); vaginal.
If it is necessary to use a drug for a therapeutic purpose (for anaerobic infections, giardiasis, etc.), the dosage is calculated individually by body weight.
According to the instructions, oral forms of the drug are taken in an amount of up to 2 g of the active substance per day, but this is an adult universal dosage - in case of hypersensitivity or insufficient body weight, it must be adjusted with a doctor.
- with giardiasis, the reception is carried out at night, they drink 3 tablets / capsules at once (1.5 g of the active substance);
- for the treatment of trichomoniasis, men drink 1 tablet in the morning, afternoon and evening, and women need vaginal therapy;
- it is desirable to treat demodicosis with Ornidazole (1 tablet / capsule 2 times a day) with the addition of local antiseptics;
- therapy lasts 2 weeks; if ureaplasmosis is worried, the use of the drug is needed for both sexual partners, up to 5 tablets are drunk per day; almost all forms of amebiasis are treated with 2 tablets daily.
Treatment of bacterial vaginosis requires the use of this drug topically, however, vaginal suppositories under this name are not available - the instruction suggests using a tablet form instead.
Due to the special composition of the shell, it can be inserted into the vagina, the instructions for use are standard: first, hygiene procedures (washing) are carried out, then a tablet is injected.
You do not need to calculate the dosage - 1 tablet is taken for 1 time, and up to 4 tablets can be used per day. The duration of the course of treatment must be determined by the doctor.
Intravenous administration is carried out for half an hour (less often - 15 minutes), the dosage at a time is 500 mg, it can be increased to 1000 mg in the serious condition of the patient.
The exact numbers and schemes of the procedures are determined by the disease:
- amoebic dysentery and any extra-intestinal forms of amoebiasis are treated with the introduction of 1000 mg of the drug in the first procedure and 500 mg every 12 hours for 6 days;
- treatment of anaerobic infections is carried out according to a similar scheme, or daily (interval - exactly 24 hours) by introducing 1000 mg;
- therapy lasts 10 days. If simultaneous oral administration of the drug with the same active ingredient is practiced, more than 1000 mg per day cannot be administered intravenously.
When the patient's condition stabilizes, injections should be replaced with oral administration. For prophylactic purposes, before the operation, the solution can be combined with a similar (injection) use of penicillins or cephalosporins, but they are not administered simultaneously.
Trichomoniasis treatment with Ornidazole
The fight against diseases that provoke the simplest microorganisms trichomonas vaginalis is carried out only after consulting a doctor.
Ornidazole is highly effective against Trichomonas, but the duration of treatment should be as short as possible.
Therapeutic measures are applied to both partners, whatever the results are shown by microbiological examinations. In men, treatment is predominantly oral, in women - topical (use of vaginal tablets).
Ornidazole with demodicosis
Skin mite - the causative agent of demodicosis - requires exposure from the inside and outside. For this reason, the use of Ornidazole is necessarily combined with the use of local agents (antiseptics): it has a strong acaricidal effect, blocking the process of mites reproduction, but will require treatment lasting several weeks. Most doctors advise combining this medication with Metronidazole.
Ornidazole for giardiasis
The use of a drug to eliminate lamblia should be short: often the doctor prescribes a single dose of a large dose in the evening or dividing the maximum dosage into several doses.
They try not to prescribe treatment with this drug for children due to its high toxicity.
If the disease is started, it is possible to extend therapy for a day. After that, you will have to switch to less heavy medicines.
Ornidazole with ureaplasmosis
Ureaplasma is one of the simplest organisms in relation to which Ornidazole is especially active. Therefore, the drug is used to treat ureaplasmosis.
Both sex partners should be treated at the same time to prevent re-infection. The dosage of Ornidazole for ureaplasmosis depends on the severity of the process, the patient's body weight and is assigned to each patient individually.
For adults, Ornidazole is usually used in a daily dose of 500 mg to 2.5 g. Adolescents weighing more than 60 kg are prescribed 1 g of the drug per day. Children - based on the calculation of 30-40 mg per 1 kg of body weight per day. The duration of the course of treatment is determined by the doctor.
How to take Ornidazole
Ornidazole tablet should be swallowed whole (not crushed or chewed), and the capsule should not be opened. It is recommended to take the drug after meals (preferably in the evening) and drink plenty of water.
You should observe equal intervals of time between doses of the medicine. Given the possibility of adverse reactions from the nervous system (impaired coordination, dizziness and others), during the period of treatment with Ornidazole, it is recommended to avoid driving vehicles and work requiring attention and a quick reaction.
The dose of Ornidazole, the frequency of administration, the duration of treatment is selected by the doctor depending on the disease, the severity of the course, the presence of concomitant pathology, the patient's body weight. For adults, depending on body weight, the daily dose is prescribed from 500 mg to 2 g in one or more doses.
For children weighing up to 35 kg, the daily dose is 20-40 mg per 1 kg of body weight. On average, the course of treatment lasts 5-7 days. Intravaginally prescribed 1-2 g per day (a tablet is inserted after hygiene procedures into the vagina).
When using Ornidazole in the form of a solution for injection, adults are injected intravenously from 0.5 to 1 g of the drug per day by drop or jet slowly. The daily dose is administered 3 times at intervals of at least 8 hours. For prophylactic purposes, Ornidazole is prescribed in a dose of 0.5 g 2 times a day (before surgery and within 3-5 days after surgery).
Interaction of Ornidazole with alcohol
The instructions for the drug do not say anything about the joint intake of ornidazole and alcohol. This is due to the fact that, unlike other drugs, derivatives of nitroimidazole (for example, Metronidazole), Ornidazole does not inhibit the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (an enzyme that destroys alcohol in the body). For this reason, it is possible, although undesirable, the simultaneous use of Ornidazole with alcohol.
However, it should be borne in mind that alcoholic beverages have a negative effect on the body, and especially on the human brain and liver, therefore, during treatment, it is recommended to reduce the amount of alcohol.
This is due to the fact that chemicals in one way or another also have a negative effect on the liver. A vital organ may not have time to cope with the double load, because it has to process medicinal chemistry and alcohol at the same time.
It is also not recommended to drink alcohol if another drug is prescribed in addition to Ornidazolaa.
Try not to drink alcohol for 8 hours between each dose. If, after taking ornidazole, there is a deterioration in well-being, then overpower yourself and completely give up alcohol for the period of treatment.
The combined use of ethyl and 2 drugs at the same time can lead to serious consequences for liver cells.
Ornidazole medicine for children
Dosages for a child over 3 years old are calculated by body weight, taking into account the severity of the condition, the sensitivity of the body and the diagnosis. General schemes can be adjusted by the attending physician. If children weigh more than 35 kg, they are prescribed adult dosages.
Once a day, 25 mg per kg of weight in the treatment of trichomoniasis and any form of amebiasis; 40 mg for each kg of weight for 3 days (daily dosage) in the fight against amoebic dysentery; 40 mg for each kg of weight (giardiasis treatment) one time; the solution is considered at 20 mg / kg, the dose received is divided into 2 procedures, and with amoebic dysentery, the dosage can be increased to 30 mg / kg.
The use of Ornidazole during pregnancy and lactation
During the study, ornidazole had no teratogenic or toxic effects on the fetus. Since controlled studies with the participation of pregnant women have not been conducted, the drug is contraindicated in the first trimester of pregnancy.
In the II and III trimester of pregnancy, the drug should be taken only if there are absolute indications, when the possible benefits from the use of the drug to the mother outweigh the potential risk to the fetus / child.
If necessary, use of the drug should stop breastfeeding.
Drug interactions of Ornidazalone
The therapeutic effect of anticoagulants belonging to the coumarin series, when used simultaneously with Ornidazole, will be enhanced, therefore, their dosage should be adjusted by a doctor.
Additionally, this drug can: prolong the period of action of Vecuronium bromide (muscle relaxant effect); work in increased concentration if liver enzyme inhibitors are taken at the same time; to reduce the concentration of the active substance inhibitors of microsomal liver enzymes (phenobarbital, cimetidine, rifampicin).
The substance of the same name contains many medicines: among them there are even combined ones - Elzhin's vaginal tablets (supplemented with neomycin, prednisolone, econazole) and Combiflox (with ofloxacin).
But most of the structural analogs are based on one component. Among them, according to doctors' opinions, they show themselves especially well: Tiberal; Gairo; Dazolic.
Special instructions when using Ornidazole
When using high doses of the drug and in case of treatment for more than 10 days, it is recommended to carry out clinical and laboratory monitoring.
In individuals with a history of blood disorders, it is recommended to control leukocytes, especially during repeated courses of treatment.
During treatment with the drug, an increase in the severity of disorders from the central nervous system or peripheral nervous system may be noted. In case of peripheral neuropathy, impaired coordination of movements (ataxia), dizziness or impaired consciousness, treatment should be discontinued.
It is necessary to control the concentration of lithium salts, creatinine and electrolytes during lithium therapy. The effect of other drugs may increase or decrease during the period of use of the drug.
There may be an exacerbation of candidomycosis, requiring appropriate treatment. In the case of hemodialysis, it is necessary to take into account the decrease in T½ and prescribe additional doses of the drug before or after hemodialysis.
Use with caution in patients with impaired liver function.
The drug contains lactose, so it should not be used in patients with rare hereditary forms of galactose intolerance, lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption syndrome.
Terms of sale and storage of Ornidazalone
Dispensing from pharmacies of all dosage forms of Ornidazole is carried out only after the patient presents a prescription from a doctor. The shelf life of the drug cannot exceed 2 years (for capsules - 3 years), and it should be kept in a cool and dark place.
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