Table of contents:
- What are worms
- Signs of worms entering the child's body
- Medicines for worms for children
- Preparations for worms for children
- Helminthic invasion. What to give a medicine for worms to a child 5 years old
- Worm infestation - prevention of worms in children
Video: Helminthic Invasion In Children: Symptoms, Drugs And Treatment
Worm infestation in children is a very common disease. Helmite eggs can enter the child's body in various ways, but as a rule, the reason is non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene. Attending kindergarten, the likelihood of infection increases, since parasites, for example, the same pinworms, are transmitted incredibly quickly from person to person.
The content of the article:
- 1 What are worms
- 2 Signs of worms entering the child's body
- 3 Medicines for worms for children
- 4 Preparations for worms for children
- 5 Helminthic invasion. What to give a medicine for worms to a child 5 years old
- 6 Helminthic invasion - prevention of worms in children
What are worms
Helminths, or, in common parlance, worms, are worms that parasitize the human body, mainly in the intestines. The group of diseases caused by worms is called helminthiases, or worm infestations.
Worms are ubiquitous, and everyone can get helminthiasis. Due to insufficiently developed protective barriers of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as due to the peculiarities of the lifestyle, worms are more common in children than in adults.
Worm infestation is not as harmless as some parents think. Penetrating into the child's body, worms cause mechanical damage to organs and tissues, lead to disruption of the motor function of the intestine, causing constipation or, conversely, increased stool frequency. The intestinal microflora is also disturbed and dysbiosis develops.
Eggs or larvae of worms are microscopic in size and can maintain their viability for a long time outside the human body: in the soil, on the surface of objects, on food, on the skin. Once in the child's oral cavity, the eggs of the worms pass through the acidic environment of the stomach and are activated in the intestines, where the conditions for their development are most favorable.
In the process of vital activity, worms absorb various nutrients and vitamins from the child's intestines. This leads to a delay in the growth and development of the baby. Some helminths parasitize in internal organs - liver, pancreas - and lead to a violation of their function.
Signs of worms entering the child's body
Symptoms and treatment of worms in children is the basic information that all parents need to know, without exception. Regarding the signs, it is worth noting that the infection manifests itself in different ways. Symptoms depend on the type of worms caught in the baby, the stage of their development. General signs of infection with worms can still be distinguished.
For example, with pinworms, the child complains of a burning sensation in the anus and constantly scratches in this place. When ascaris enters the body, the signs are invisible until a certain time. When these parasites are twisted into tangles, the child develops intestinal obstruction, and the condition worsens.
The child may have the following symptoms:
- weight loss; a change in craving for food (it either increases or disappears);
- nausea and sometimes vomiting; pain in the abdomen;
- itching in the anus; inflammation of the external genital organs;
- headaches and dizziness; the presence of parasites in baby feces;
- tearfulness, anxiety, moodiness (the main symptoms of worms in children under one year old).
Parasites entering the internal organs cause mechanical tissue damage. The intestinal motor function is impaired. Because of this, the child has diarrhea and constipation. Also, due to worms, the balance of microflora is disturbed. This leads to the development of dysbiosis and the appearance of symptoms of this disease.
Worms, being in the child's body, absorb various nutrients and vitamins from the organs of the digestive system. The kid does not receive them. Because of this, the child loses weight, he has a delay in growth and development.
Worm infestation also predetermines urinary incontinence, exacerbation of allergic diseases, an increase in the frequency of colds, teeth grinding during sleep. All of the above symptoms may not occur at the same time. Quite often, children show some specific symptom.
Medicines for worms for children
Preparations for worms are safe, of course, if you do not violate the dosage prescribed for the child. By the way, the doctor's recommendations on this matter do not always fully correspond to what is written in the instructions, for example, for "Vermox", which is almost not absorbed, the safe dosage will be greater than that indicated in the description of the drug.
For example, one-time diarrhea, short-term abdominal pain, sometimes vomiting, fever, discomfort in the mouth, or a feeling of non-existent odors appear. But even such harmless side effects occur quite rarely, and sorbents (activated carbon, "Lactofiltrum") help from them.
When the parasites begin to break down under the action of the drug, the child may experience side effects.
There are almost no contraindications for antihelminthic drugs. The exception is children with serious disorders of the nervous system, tumors or blood diseases (in these cases, the issue of antihelminthic treatment is decided for each child in different ways, and always taking into account the opinion of a specialist on the underlying disease).
The World Health Organization has compiled a list of safe anthelmintic drugs that can be used to prevent infection (WHO Essential Drug List). It includes 4 drugs that are also used in Russia, their international names: levamisole, mebendazole, pyrantel, albendazole.
Better than any one medicine, complex antihelminthic courses help: 2-3 drugs, which are given to children with short interruptions. For example, first, "Dekaris" (levamisole) 2.5 mg / kg once, then a 3-day break, after that - "Vermox" (mebendazole) 50-100 mg 2 times a day - 3 days. Other combinations of antihelminthic agents are also possible.
Helminthic invasion. If pinworms or dwarf tapeworms are found in a child or in one of his relatives, all family members should be treated so that they do not infect each other. In this case, it is also advisable to carry out a "general cleaning", including boiling and ironing bed and personal linen on both sides. In case of detection of ascariasis or suspicion of it, such safety measures are not required.
Helminthic invasion. Anthelmintic drugs are generally safe, only the correct dosage must be observed. The doses prescribed by the doctor for these drugs may differ from those indicated in the description of the drugs. Better than any one medicine, children are helped by complex antihelminthic courses: a combination of 2-3 drugs that are given with short interruptions.
At the beginning of treatment, the child's condition often worsens. After taking the drug, diarrhea occurs, the body temperature rises, pains are felt in the abdomen, and discomfort appears in the oral cavity.
Such reactions of the body are not yet a signal that the drug prescribed by the doctor is not suitable for the baby. Such symptoms indicate in most cases that the medication chosen by a specialist really works and has a detrimental effect on parasites.
Treatment of worms in a child with drugs can consist of the following stages:
- taking an anthelmintic drug (for example, it can be Albendazole, a broad-spectrum drug, Pirantel, an anthelmintic drug that affects nematodes);
- the use of enterosorbents for 5 days - means that promote the elimination of drugs and toxins from the body (Entegnin, Smecta);
- taking enzyme preparations for 2 weeks and biologics for 3 weeks;
- the use of vitamin and mineral complexes.
Preparations for worms for children
Helminthic invasion. During antihelminthic therapy, parents should take into account that the death of adults of helminths is accompanied by the release of large doses of toxic substances into the body, which provoke severe intoxication. In this case, it is recommended 24 hours after taking the antihelminthic drug, to carry out therapy with enterosorbents.
For this purpose, you can use activated carbon, Polysorb, and Enterosgel. In cases where the child is worried about the manifestations of an allergic reaction caused by the presence of helminthic invasion, antihistamines should be included in the treatment plan.
For children of the first year of life, it is advisable to use funds such as Zyrtek, Tsetrin, Zodak, Clarisens. This list of drugs does not have a hypnotic effect, and is available in the form of drops and syrups.
Pirantel: Perhaps the most popular antihelminthic drug used in pediatric practice and indicated for children from 6 months of age. The effectiveness of this remedy extends to the causative agents of ascariasis, enterobiasis, hookworm infection, noncatorosis.
For effective treatment of helminthiasis caused by roundworms and pinworms, a single dose of pyrantel is sufficient, repeated after 14 days, since the agent does not affect the larvae during the migration period. It can be both tablets and a suspension for worms for children from 6 months.
Among the side effects while taking pyrantel, one can distinguish partial or complete loss of appetite, nausea, increased drowsiness, headache, and the development of allergic reactions.
Mebendazole: Another effective worm syrup for children from 2 years of age. Its most famous trade name is "Vermox".
A characteristic feature of this drug is its wide range of antihelminthic activity, extending to the causative agents of enterobiasis, trichocephalosis, trichinosis, teniasis, strongyloidosis.
Helminthic invasion. It is mebendazole that is considered in world practice as the best choice for enterobiasis and ascariasis for humans. But when it comes to children, it is not always worth choosing it. It is advisable to use this remedy for mixed (caused by a combination of several pathogens) or severe helminthic invasion.
As a result of taking mebendazole, side reactions such as apathy, dizziness, upset stools, nausea, vomiting, fever, and the development of a hypersensitivity reaction may occur. The appointment of this drug is not recommended for children under 2 years of age.
Piperazine: this drug is characterized by its narrow spectrum of action, which applies only to the causative agents of enterobiasis and ascariasis. The main effect of drugs based on piperazine is based on the paralytic effect on the muscles of helminths, without directly causing their death.
Thus, deprived of the ability to move, adults of helminths are deprived of the ability to hold onto the intestinal walls. Their excretion from the body occurs naturally with feces.
Piperazine is the most preferred remedy for the most common intestinal worms in children, as it is considered the least toxic to the child's body. But its disadvantages are low efficiency against helminthiasis caused by massive helminthic invasions, as well as a narrow spectrum of action.
Side effects are rare with this drug. Possible adverse reactions include headache, cramping abdominal pain, nausea, and upset stool.
Albendazole: The best known trade names are Vormil and Nemozol. The therapeutic effect of this drug is very wide and extends to the causative agents of enterobiasis, ascariasis, ankylostomiasis, toxocariasis, teniasis, trichinosis, giardiasis, clonorchiasis.
These tablets for worms for children and adults are characterized by a high intensity of exposure to adults of helminths and larvae during the migration period, but also by a wide range of possible side effects while taking them.
Taking the drug is categorically contraindicated in children under 2 years of age.
The most likely side effects include:
- nausea; increased gas production in the intestines;
- upset stool; increased sleepiness or insomnia;
- dry mouth; toxic liver damage;
- dizziness; increased body temperature;
- allergic dermatitis and urticaria.
Levamisole: the drug has the greatest effect against helminthiasis caused by ascaris larvae. In addition, it has an immunostimulating effect. At the same time, it is poorly suited for getting rid of pinworms. Levamisole is contraindicated in children under 3 years of age.
In the process of taking levamisole, a child may develop such adverse reactions as nausea, stool disorders, sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, pain in the umbilical region. Long-term use of the drug may be accompanied by the appearance of toxic damage to the kidneys and liver.
Helminthic invasion. What to give a medicine for worms to a child 5 years old
Nemazole: an anthelmintic agent with the active ingredient albendazole. Under the influence of this substance, metabolic disorders in the body of the parasite are rapidly developing.
This is due to the fact that the active ingredient interferes with the utilization of glucose and other vital nutrients for the helminth. When exposed to albendazole, a powerful contracture of the muscles of the parasite develops, as a result of which it dies.
The medicine is released in the form of a suspension and capsules. In the prevention of helminthiasis in children, it is syrup that is more often used. This remedy for parasites is prescribed from 5 years. However, the suspension is used in the treatment of helminthiasis in children under the age of 2 years.
General contraindications for use are:
- pregnancy (all trimesters); breast-feeding;
- low content of granulocytes in the blood; acute suppression of bone marrow hematopoiesis;
- chronic liver disease. These include cirrhosis, fatty liver disease, hepatitis, and liver failure;
- disturbances in the work of the urinary system, including decompensated renal failure; allergy to albendazole;
- ocular cysticercosis and other diseases, accompanied by damage to the retina.
Vermox: This is a highly effective anthelmintic agent. It is used for enterobiasis, ascariasis, trichocephalosis. Vermox is a broad-spectrum antihelminthic drug.
After entering the intestine, the drug enters the body of the helminth and disrupts the functions of protein metabolism, mainly the ability to absorb glucose. Due to the lack of glucose, the process of energy production and other metabolic functions of worms stops, after which they die and are excreted from the intestines in a natural way.
Vermox is strictly prohibited for children under two years of age. At the age of 2 to 10 years, use only in accordance with the prescription of the attending physician.
The main effect of the drug occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, however, approximately 5-10% of vermox is absorbed by the blood, but when passing through the liver is destroyed to metabolic products and is excreted from the body through the kidneys.
Worm infestation - prevention of worms in children
There are a number of foods that can help fight helminths. This is carrot juice or finely grated carrots, which are taken in 0.5 cups on an empty stomach, as well as figs, viburnum, onions, parsley, garlic, and prunes.
Among herbs, mint decoction, dill seed, watermelon and pumpkin seeds, nettle decoction, St. John's wort have an antiparasitic effect. These folk remedies can be used to prevent helminthiasis, including them in the baby's menu.
When confirming the diagnosis of helminthic invasion, the doctor must necessarily prescribe an antihelminthic drug to the child for treatment. In this case, the use of these herbal remedies enhances the effect of anthelmintic drugs.
Helminthic invasion. If the parents suspected that the child has worms, or just want to make sure that after the rest in the country, the baby does not have a worm infestation, it is necessary to consult a pediatrician who will give a referral for a fecal analysis and, if the diagnosis is confirmed, will prescribe treatment against worms.
Some pediatricians suggest that all children be given PIRANTEL in the fall as a prophylactic agent, without taking tests and confirming the diagnosis. This is not quite the right decision. PIRANTEL is indeed generally well tolerated by children, but the child may have an individual intolerance to any of the components of this drug.
Helminthic invasion. The main preventive measures for worms in a child:
- be sure to teach your child to wash their hands with soap and water before each meal and after using the toilet;
- Each family member must have a separate hanging personal towel;
- vegetables must be washed with raw water and rinsed with boiling water. The greens must first be rinsed under running water from the tap, and then rinsed with cooled boiled water. In the same way it is necessary to rinse strawberries, raspberries, strawberries before use. The rest of the berries and fruits are first washed under running water, and then rinsed with hot water;
- products should be tried to be protected from flies that are capable of carrying worm eggs on their paws;
- the child should not be allowed to come into contact with street dogs and cats;
- in the summer, when the baby is swimming in open water, it is necessary to ensure that he does not take water in his mouth and does not swallow it;
- it is necessary to ensure that toys, nipples, pacifiers are always clean. If a child has dropped something on the floor, you cannot give him the toy without first washing it.
Find out more:
- Worms in children: folk remedies and treatment methods
- Treatment of worms in children with folk remedies
- Pirantel: suspension for children from worms - application
- Symptoms of worms in a child. Signs of worms in children