Table of contents:
- What are pinworms (enterobiasis)
- Features of the structure and life cycle of pinworms
- How pinworms are transmitted
- Pinworms - Harm to humans
- How to get tested for the presence of worms in the body
- Symptoms and signs of pinworms (enterobiasis)
- Pinworms - Treatment and prevention (enterobiasis)
- Pinworms during pregnancy
- Treatment of pinworms during pregnancy
- Pinworms - Treatment during lactation
- Interesting facts about human parasites
- Prevention of helminthiasis
Video: Pinworms - Enterobiasis. Symptoms, Remedies And Treatments
2023 Author: Riley Dean | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 09:15
Pinworms are parasitic worms that can inhabit the human body. Pinworms provoke the appearance of enterobiasis, which threatens the sick with various unpleasant consequences. In order for the treatment of helminthic invasion to be effective and painless, it is important to correctly choose a remedy for pinworms. The choice of a drug should be based on the recommendations of the attending physician, since in the case of self-treatment, incomplete removal of pinworms from the body is possible. Enterobiasis (pinworms) belongs to helminthiasis (diseases caused by worms), and belongs to the group of nematoses (diseases caused by roundworms). The causative agent of enterobiasis is the pinworm worm - a round worm 2-5 mm long male, 9-12 mm female.
The content of the article:
- 1 What is pinworms (enterobiasis)
- 2 Features of the structure and life cycle of pinworms
- 3 How pinworms are transmitted
- 4 Pinworms - Harm to humans
- 5 How to get tested for the presence of worms in the body
- 6 Symptoms and signs of pinworms (enterobiasis)
- 7 Pinworms - Treatment and prevention (enterobiasis)
- 8 Pinworms during pregnancy
- 9 Treatment of pinworms during pregnancy
- 10 Pinworms - Treatment during lactation
- 11 Interesting Facts About Human Parasites
- 12 Prevention of helminthiasis
What are pinworms (enterobiasis)
The causative agent of enterobiasis is the pinworm worm - a round worm 2-5 mm long male, 9-12 mm female
Sexually mature helminths parasitize in the intestine, the area of their distribution is the lower part of the small intestine and the large intestine (cecum and the initial part of the colon).
Sexually mature females move into the rectum and lay eggs on the skin in the folds of the perianal region, actively leaving the anus. The female helminth lives one to three weeks, the eggs acquire invasive properties (that is, they can infect another person) 4-6 hours after their deposition by the female.
The main manifestations (symptoms) of pinworms are itching in the perianal region, decreased appetite, and abdominal pain. Enerobiasis is widespread.
Features of the structure and life cycle of pinworms
Despite the small size of the human pinworm, it is capable of causing tremendous harm to the body, especially in the event of a mass invasion. When an invasive pinworm egg enters the human gastrointestinal tract, a mobile larva hatches from it, which begins a gradual migration through the intestines and reaches sexual maturity in two weeks.
After fertilization, the male dies, and the female pinworm continues to migrate to the anus: it is here that she will lay eggs (from 5 to 20,000). This completes the development cycle of the pinworm.
How long do pinworms live? Their life cycle is relatively short and is 3-4 weeks, however, enterobiasis can last much longer, which is explained by the self-infection mechanism: the patient constantly swallows new eggs, which are scattered through linen, clothes, and fall on their hands.
Therefore, the answer to the question "can pinworms pass on their own?" - negative. Pinworm infection will not only not go away without effective treatment and taking suitable drugs, but it will also become chronic, leading to new dangerous consequences. The incubation period for pinworms is also minimal.
The body of pinworms is maximally adapted to life in the human body: thanks to the pointed rear end, they easily move through the intestines, feeding on the nutrients in it, as well as beneficial microflora.
Children's pinworm lives mainly in the lower part of the small intestine, but can also be found in other parts of it. For example, parasites are often found in the appendix - presumably, their vital activity is capable of causing inflammation (provoking appendicitis).
How pinworms are transmitted
The source of the invasion (pinworm infection) is a sick person, on whose hands, when combing itchy areas, helminth eggs fall. Further, both autoinvasion is possible (the patient himself swallows the pinworm eggs that have fallen into his hands, and thus supports the further development of the disease), and further transmission of the pathogen.
The factors of transmission are toilet seats, underwear and bedding of the patient, toys, and nursery pots. In addition, situations are possible when helminth eggs enter the nasopharynx with dust and are then swallowed.
Once in the stomach and small intestine, pinworm eggs sprout into larvae, which quickly grow and turn into sexually mature individuals.
Adult pinworms begin to reproduce. Fertilized females crawl out of the anus and lay eggs, which are swallowed again by the patient - from this moment a new cycle of the disease begins.
Pinworms - Harm to humans
Pinworm infection occurs when eggs are accidentally swallowed that have fallen from the patient's hands to food (fecal-oral transmission mechanism). Therefore, the disease often spreads spontaneously and outbreaks, especially often it can be found in kindergartens, swimming pools, medical institutions.
The harm caused by helminths is caused by several factors at once:
- Mechanical damage to the mucous membrane. Pinworms have sharp pterygoid processes that literally cut through the walls of the gastrointestinal tract. The wounds become inflamed and may become infected. That is why helminthic invasions are so often accompanied by the development of fungal and bacterial infections (development of candida, streptococcus).
- Toxic effects. Any type of pinworm (and three types of these worms can parasitize in the human body) has a serious toxic effect, throwing out the products of its vital activity into the digestive tract. In addition, after their death, pinworms remain in the intestine, affect it with decay products. Gradually, toxins accumulate and the manifestations of intoxication are aggravated.
- Deficiency of micro and macro elements. Like any parasites, pinworms in adults and children feed on the organism of their host, literally “eating” it. As a result, the body does not receive the necessary micro and macro elements, the imbalance of which disrupts endocrine processes.
- Disruption of the usual way of life. One of the most unpleasant (from a psychological point of view) symptoms of pinworm infection is associated with its migrations to the anus. During these periods, the patient experiences severe obsessive itching in the perineal region. As a rule, pinworms are activated in the evening hours and at night. Irritation of the anus does not allow the patient to sleep peacefully, as a result, the usual regime is disrupted, psychological fatigue accumulates, efficiency decreases, irritability increases.
How to get tested for the presence of worms in the body
There are several ways to know if an infection is present. In the clinic, you will be offered to take tests of saliva, feces and blood. An infectious disease specialist and a parasitologist deal with parasites. You can get a referral to them from a general practitioner. For a child, it is issued by a pediatrician.
At home, you should focus on your well-being. The list of infection factors below is compiled in such a way that if 7 points coincide, there is a high probability of helminthic invasion.
Count the points that match your situation:
- Often itching in the anus;
- The appearance of a rash on the skin;
- More frequent cases of headache, dizziness;
- Sudden frequent bouts of nausea. Vomiting without poisoning;
- The intestines are out of order (gas, pain, diarrhea, constipation);
- Sleep disturbances, insomnia;
- Sudden swelling of the legs;
- Allergies in the form of cough, bronchitis, asthmatic attacks, skin reactions;
- Lymph nodes are inflamed or enlarged;
- Sudden pain that goes away quickly
- Bitter taste in the mouth between meals
- Weakness, fatigue for no particular reason
- If you are in contact with preschool children, visit childcare facilities;
- A sudden rise in temperature without concomitant diseases;
- Skin and mucous tissues appear yellower than usual;
- Do you have pets that you are in constant contact with;
- Pain in muscles and joints in the absence of overexertion;
- Night snoring and clenching of teeth during sleep;
- You have eaten dried fish, bacon and other poorly processed meat products in the last couple of months;
- You have lost weight without any changes in diet or lifestyle;
- You sometimes eat vegetables and fruits straight from the garden or from the store, without washing them or scalding them with boiling water.
If the likelihood of infection with worms is present, then it is urgent to engage in prevention and treatment. Read more about this below.
Symptoms and signs of pinworms (enterobiasis)
The main symptom of enterobiasis (pinworms) is nocturnal perianal itching (itching and discomfort in the anal area). With a slight invasion, itching appears at the time of maturation of the next generation of females, during their migration into the rectum and laying eggs on the skin.
It appears within 1-3 days, then fades out and reappears 1-3 weeks after the last episode. In the event that the helminthic invasion is massive, the itching becomes incessant, painful, since new generations of females leave almost every night.
A secondary infection joins the scratching of the itchy areas and the patient develops dermatitis, characterized by a persistent course, paraproctitis and sphincteritis (inflammation of the rectal tissue) are possible. Combing the itchy places, the patient becomes infected with new portions of pinworm eggs. In addition, pinworms are characterized by abdominal pains that are cramping in nature.
Children especially often complain of abdominal pain. Stool may become more frequent (even diarrhea), feces become mushy, sometimes there is an admixture of mucus.
As a result of general intoxication, patients develop headaches, increased irritability and rapid fatigue, and insomnia. In addition, children may develop enuresis (urinary incontinence), distraction and memory loss may also develop. In girls, vulvovaginitis is not uncommon, which appears due to the crawling of helminths into the genital crevice.
Pinworms - Treatment and prevention (enterobiasis)
Since the life expectancy of pinworms is only a few weeks, the main method of treating this parasitosis is to monitor the patient's compliance with the rules of personal hygiene. It has been shown that careful adherence to personal hygiene measures is sufficient for the complete removal of the pinworm.
Underwear must be changed daily, be sure to iron both panties and pants (or skirts) with a hot iron after washing (in hot water), bed linen must be ironed every two to three days. Be sure to wash twice a day with soap, after which you need to thoroughly wash your hands.
During the entire period of the disease, you should cut your nails short and avoid scratching the itchy areas. The premises are wet cleaned daily using disinfectant solutions. After cleaning, the rags are disinfected by boiling.
The therapeutic regimen of life and hygiene is maintained for 3-4 weeks. During this time, if there was no new infection, all pinworms in the patient's intestines should have died.
Adults caring for children with pinworms should follow similar hygiene practices. With a prolonged, severe course of enterobiasis, it is necessary to use medications such as mebendazole, combatrin, piperazine preparations, decaris.
Medicines for pinworms are chosen in accordance with age indications and based on the patient's body weight. Currently, one of the most effective drugs against pinworms is the drug Dekaris (Levamisole).
Given the high infectiousness of pinworms, treatment with antihelminthic drugs is recommended for all family members (if at least one family member had pinworms) - this ensures the prevention of re-infection with worms.
Children attending preschool institutions, as well as schoolchildren in the fourth grade, employees of preschool institutions are examined for enterobiasis once a year. Those who have had enterobiasis are examined one week after the end of treatment, then two more times with an interval of a week (three times in total).
In the event that pinworm eggs or the parasites themselves are found, the treatment is repeated, but it is permissible to use medications no earlier than two weeks after the end of the previous course. Persons who have come into contact with a patient with enterobiasis are instructed to carefully monitor the cleanliness of their clothes, body, and also regularly wash their hands after visiting public places.
Pinworms during pregnancy
Pinworms are not common during pregnancy, but their appearance can cause a lot of trouble for a pregnant woman. Pinworms cannot affect the development of the fetus, but they can contribute to the development of a vaginal infection, which is highly undesirable during pregnancy.
The symptoms and signs of pinworms during pregnancy are exactly the same as in other cases in adults. The use of drugs for removing pinworms during pregnancy is undesirable, since their use can adversely affect the fetus and is allowed only in case of severe helminthic invasion.
If pinworms appear during pregnancy, you should try to remove them by observing strict personal hygiene measures.
Treatment of pinworms during pregnancy
With a positive test for pinworms during pregnancy, their treatment with chemicals up to 12 weeks of gestation is contraindicated. At this time, some traditional medicine can be used, which are described below. When infected with pinworms at a later date, the obstetrician-gynecologist may prescribe Pirantel, Piperazine and other drugs.
Medical treatment of enterobiasis cannot be carried out in the first trimester of pregnancy. In case of any side effects (headaches, malfunctions of the digestive system, allergic reactions, etc.), you should stop taking pharmaceuticals and replace them with proven alternative medicine.
Future mothers using folk remedies for the treatment of enterobiasis must remember that any herbal remedy has a wide range of contraindications. Before using any untested technique, approval should be obtained from the prenatal physician.
Pinworms - Treatment during lactation
Since drugs against pinworms are contraindicated in lactation, in this case, treatment can be carried out without the use of drugs for pinworms. You can put a cotton swab in the anus between bowel movements, preventing parasites from crawling out for 40 days (the maximum life of pinworms).
If itching in the rectum is very worried, it is recommended in the evening (during the maximum accumulation of pinworms) to make an enema to wash them. At the same time, hygiene measures are taken to prevent re-infection.
However, this method of treatment can worsen the course of hemorrhoids (if the patient suffers from this disease). Then you have to use treatment with drugs for pinworms with interruption of breastfeeding for about four days.
Interesting facts about human parasites
- According to the WHO, about 3 billion people are infected annually with helminthic infestations. Enterobiasis affects 1.2 billion, hookworm - 0.9 billion, trichocephalosis - 0.7 billion. And this is only official statistics !;
- In European countries, every third inhabitant carries intestinal parasites in the body;
- Russia suffers from influenza and parasites in relatively equal amounts;
- With serious invasions, a person loses up to 500 ml of blood per day. From here ailments and chronic fatigue originate;
- Some parasites are localized in the brain, eyeball, bone marrow and can live there for up to 30 years. For example, cytisterk.;
- Ascaris females lay 240,000 eggs per day. Constant reinfection will not allow a person to be cured the first time. Repeated courses of treatment are required;
- The waste products of parasites - poisons and toxins - undermine human health 24 hours a day;
- Some types of tapeworms are up to 12 meters long. Sometimes it threatens with obstruction of the human intestine;
- Pumpkin seeds contain cucurbitins, which help to heal worm infestation without resorting to medications. Children are often given pumpkin seeds for prevention;
- It is optimal to treat pets every 3 months. So you will save yourself and children from parasites;
- Worm eggs can wait in the wings on door handles for up to 6 months;
- An infected dog scatters parasite eggs by breathing within a radius of 5 meters;
- In order not to be digested in the stomach and intestines, worms and their eggs secrete protective anti-enzymes;
- Trichinella does not lay eggs, but produces ready-made worms. Therefore, it is impossible to detect the presence of this parasite in laboratory conditions;
- The most effective assay for detecting invasion is considered to be an enzyme immunoassay. Swabs, stool analysis may not provide reliable information.
Summing up, it should be said that regular prevention of helminthic infections, even with cheap drugs (they are also considered the most gentle), helps to protect the whole family. Be responsible for hand and body hygiene and prepare food thoroughly for use. Children and pets need constant monitoring for parasites.
Prevention of helminthiasis
If pinworm eggs were found in children, then all family members are recommended to undergo infection prevention at the same time as their treatment. In addition, it is important to treat bedding, garments from the eggs of the parasite.
If pinworm eggs were found in children, then simultaneously with their treatment, it is recommended that all family members go through the prevention of invasion
How to treat pinworms in adults, and which tablets are suitable not only for the treatment of worms (pinworms), but also for their prevention? The optimal solution would be to choose a product based on natural ingredients. Such an antiparasitic complex is offered by Optisult. The drug has been certified and proven to be effective against helminths, their eggs and larvae.
Find out more:
- Helminthiasis - causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
- Worms in an adult: signs, symptoms and treatment regimen
- Biohelminths and geohelminths: symptoms and what they are
- Helminths in humans: signs, symptoms and treatment
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