Ascaris In Adults - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment Methods

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Ascaris In Adults - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment Methods
Ascaris In Adults - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment Methods

Video: Ascaris In Adults - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment Methods

Video: Ascaris In Adults - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment Methods
Video: What is Ascariasis ? ( Ascaris Lumbricoids Infections - FAQ ) 2023, December

Roundworms are parasitic worms that can settle in the human body and cause significant damage to its health. Ascariasis can provoke the development of dangerous chronic diseases, therefore, the treatment of ascariasis must be approached with great responsibility. Treatment of ascariasis in adults can be carried out by various methods, for example, drugs, oxygen methods, surgery. The latter method is used in advanced cases, when the roundworm cannot be withdrawn in another way.

The content of the article:

  • 1 What is ascariasis
  • 2 Ascaris - Diagnostics
  • 3 Symptoms of the early stage of ascariasis in adults
  • 4 Ascaris - Intestinal stage in adults
  • 5 The main stages of treatment of ascariasis in adults
  • 6 Ascaris - Treatment by medical methods in adults
  • 7 Ascaris - Oxygen treatment
  • 8 Diet for ascariasis in adults
  • 9 Treatment of ascaris in adults with alternative methods
  • 10 Consequences of ascariasis
  • 11 Ascaris - Prevention

What is Ascariasis

The infectious disease ascariasis is well known to residents of regions with a warm and humid climate. At the moment, ascariasis is the most common helminthiasis. Ascariasis is common on all continents and is regularly detected in residents of both developing and economically developed countries.

In regions with a dry climate, ascariasis is much less common, it is completely absent beyond the Arctic Circle. The causative agent of the infection is human roundworm - a round or spindle-shaped helminth that multiplies in the liver, colon, pancreas and other internal organs.

Treatment of ascariasis in children and adults is absolutely necessary, because, otherwise, the colonies of parasites can reach such sizes that they will cause intestinal obstruction and other serious consequences.

A mature female roundworm lays up to 245,000 eggs per day, and the larvae mature within only 9-20 days, after which they immediately begin their destructive activity. Ascariasis enters the body by swallowing mature eggs. As a rule, this happens when eating fresh vegetables that have not been properly sanitized.

Private garden plots are also of great danger today, where soil fertility is increased by introducing non-neutralized human feces into the ground.

In general, non-observance of basic hygiene rules almost always entails long-term treatment of ascariasis in adults and children. Remember this when you buy vegetables from good-natured grannies or eat a tasty apple without first washing it in warm water.

Ascaris - Diagnostics

Diagnosis of ascariasis is carried out based on the symptoms of the course of this disease. How to identify a helminth if it is not in the intestines, and all the symptoms indicate the presence of ascaris?

Even if ascaris eggs are found in the feces, this does not mean at all that larvae cannot exist in the human body in parallel. New larvae can appear due to multiple reinvasions. With each new reinfection, human immunity becomes weaker.

If during the first infection the stage of development of the larvae was asymptomatic, then with each subsequent infection the general condition of the body only worsens, and if we take into account the fact that the extraintestinal activity of the roundworm is much more dangerous, then when roundworms are found in the intestine, all internal organs must be fully checked.

If, with the traditional method - the analysis of feces - not a single helminth was detected - a special diagnosis is carried out designed only to detect ascariasis, diagnostics, which includes:

  • taking a blood test for eosinophils - their presence indicates that parasites release toxins into the body. This analysis makes it possible to diagnose "general helminthiasis";
  • if parasites, or rather their larvae, have settled in the lungs, the diagnosis is greatly simplified. The detected parasite (larva or recently transformed adult) confirms ascariasis in adults or children. In this case, the secreted sputum is examined;
  • But what if parasites have nestled in the liver or other organs, how to find them? There is no discharge from these organs that can be diagnosed without a biopsy. In this case, the presence of eosinophils in the blood, symptoms and biochemical analysis for the fermentation of various proteins are of primary importance. MRI is used to diagnose the brain and eyes.

Symptoms of the early stage of ascariasis in adults

Ascaris in adults - causes, symptoms and treatment methods
Ascaris in adults - causes, symptoms and treatment methods

Ascaris. How and when can the presence of this type of helminths be detected in the body? After penetration, the first clinical manifestations of the disease appear in 1-2 months. Non-intensive invasion can be asymptomatic or subclinical.

With a pronounced reaction of the body, symptoms such as headache, general weakness prevail

With a pronounced reaction of the body, such signs as headache, general weakness, increased fatigue, an increase in temperature to subfebrile parameters, allergic manifestations (itching, skin rash) prevail.

Less often, infection is accompanied by a clinical picture of pulmonary pathologies, manifested by cough, sputum separation (bloody inclusions are possible), shortness of breath, pain in the chest area, during the examination, signs of exudative pleurisy, the presence of eosinophilic infiltrates of the tissues of the lungs and bronchi can be detected.

There is also an increase in lymph nodes, spleen, liver. The migration of larvae can cause the development of pneumonia and bronchitis, as well as signs of impaired activity of the cardiovascular system and liver.

Ascaris - Intestinal stage in adults

The late phase of the disease can manifest itself in various symptoms and the severity of the course. In adults, ascariasis can be mild or asymptomatic. In a clinically pronounced case, frequent complaints relate to gastrointestinal dysfunction and asthenic syndrome.

Accelerated transport of food mass in the intestine, damage to the mucous membrane, a decrease in the absorption of nutrients, vitamins, as well as the constant presence in the body of toxins secreted by parasites lead not only to morphological and functional disorders in the small intestine, but also to asthenic conditions and various symptoms from the nervous systems.

The main stages of the treatment of ascariasis in adults

To get rid of this type of helminths like roundworms, no serious treatment is required. However, therapy must necessarily be comprehensive in order to get rid not only of the worms themselves, but also of their larvae and laid eggs.

The use of medications gives a quick and positive result. But many drugs have strong effects and are highly toxic. Therefore, their dosage should be calculated only by the attending physician, especially when it comes to the child's body.

Ascaris. Complex therapy will consist of several stages: destruction of parasites; elimination of accompanying symptoms; prevention of re-infection; vitamin therapy; treatment of complications that have arisen; supportive therapy.

Special antiparasitic drugs, which are taken in several approaches, help to destroy worms. Painful and uncomfortable symptoms are also eliminated with the help of medicines. But this happens only after all roundworms are excreted from the body.

Ascaris in adults - causes, symptoms and treatment methods
Ascaris in adults - causes, symptoms and treatment methods

Symptomatic treatment is aimed at getting rid of constipation and diarrhea, abdominal pain, cough and allergic rash that appears on the skin surface. Re-infection prevention is to reduce any risk of catching the parasites again. Some features may affect nutrition in the treatment of ascariasis.

Due to the fact that the parasites feed on the incoming nutrients, a deficiency of important micronutrients occurs. The child begins to lag behind in his development, and his weight decreases significantly. It is important during such a period to organize a full and high-calorie food for the baby in order to avoid a state of exhaustion.

The intake of vitamins and minerals in case of parasite damage is also given special attention. Usually, after the worms and their larvae have been removed from the body, the doctor may prescribe a course of multivitamin preparations. This will allow the weakened internal system to recover, and at the same time the body will be able to get stronger and gain additional strength.

Ascaris - Treatment by medical methods in adults

How to treat roundworm in adults
How to treat roundworm in adults

All patients diagnosed with ascariasis should undergo a course of anthelmintic drug therapy.

As a rule, in the treatment of ascariasis, the following drugs are prescribed:

Albendazole: adults should take it once in an amount of 400 mg after meals, children - in a lower dosage in two doses for 1-3 days.

Mebendazole: indicated for admission to adults and children over two years old. The optimal dose is 100 mg twice a day for three days.

Carbendacim: the recommended dosage is 10 mg / kg three times a day, half an hour after meals. The course of admission is three days.

Pirantel: taken once after meals at 10 mg / kg.

Laxatives are not required when using these drugs. In most cases, no special diet is needed either.

Ascaris. Sometimes, in the presence of complications, a protein diet may be indicated, as well as probiotics, enzyme preparations (Mezim, Creon). It is useful to drink a course of multivitamins, iron supplements and desensitizing medicines (Suprastin, Tavegil).

In severe cases, detoxification therapy, anti-vomiting drugs are prescribed. Surgery may also be indicated for complications.

Roundworm - Oxygen treatment

Recently, oxygen therapy has been used to treat this ailment, especially in children. The essence of the method is in changing the physical and chemical conditions of the ascaris habitat. This treatment is completely non-toxic. In addition to the fact that oxygen destroys worms, the procedure also helps to cleanse the body as a whole.

How to treat roundworm in adults
How to treat roundworm in adults

Therapy usually lasts for a week. In the morning on an empty stomach, the patient is injected oxygen through a thin catheter into the stomach in small portions. It is painless and does not cause discomfort. After the introduction of the gas, the patient should lie down for a couple of hours. After that, it is recommended to drink an oxygen cocktail, eat breakfast and start your daily activities.

It is also recommended to add a sorbent to herbal medicine, for example, Enterosgel, as well as a drug to normalize the pancreas. After oxygen therapy, you need to re-take tests to make sure that all helminths have died. They cannot stand the action of oxygen, so they die and leave the body along with feces.

Ascaris. The procedure is preceded by a preparatory stage. A week before therapy, you need to drink herbal infusion of oak bark, tansy, buckthorn, wormwood. For its preparation, it is mixed in a teaspoon of raw materials. The mixture is poured with boiling water (500 grams). Drink infusion should be 50 grams twice a day 15 minutes before meals.

Diet for ascariasis in adults

Diet therapy is an important component of the successful treatment of ascariasis. You need to take food 5 times a day. There should be no long intervals between meals.

Ascaris in adults - causes, symptoms and treatment methods
Ascaris in adults - causes, symptoms and treatment methods

The following foods should be included in your diet: slimy decoctions from cereals; wheat bread (only dried); marmalade; mashed porridge from buckwheat, semolina and rice groats; lean meats; low fat broths; rosehip broth; potatoes, ripe tomatoes, carrots and beets; soft berries and fruits.

Exclude the following foods: fatty cabbage soup or soups; canned food; fatty meats; chocolate; cakes; cocoa; milk and cream; pearl barley, barley groats; pasta.

Treatment of ascaris in adults with alternative methods

The most effective recipes for traditional medicine will help you quickly get rid of helminths.

How to treat roundworm in adults
How to treat roundworm in adults

Such products that are very easy to prepare at home help well:

Healing solution based on milk and garlic: take 1 head of medium sized garlic and 200 ml of milk. Boil the garlic in milk until softened. The medicinal broth is cooled and filtered. You should make an enema out of it at night. The procedure must be performed within one week daily. You can also just crush a few garlic cloves and wash them down with milk. It is better to take laxative tablets or drops 2 hours after taking it.

Pumpkin seeds are very effective for the treatment of helminthiasis: take 500 g of peeled seeds, grind them thoroughly. A small amount of boiled water is added and the mixture is stirred.

This remedy is taken only on an empty stomach - 1 teaspoon. The entire volume of the mixture must be eaten in 1 hour. After 3 hours, drink magnesia, which is previously diluted with water. Then they give a cleansing enema.

Onion helps to fight helminths well: an infusion is prepared from this vegetable. The onion must be thoroughly chopped and filled with water. You can use rubbing alcohol. The tool is insisted for 10 days. The dose for an adult is 1-2 tablespoons. Take 2 times a day. Therapy should be carried out for 3-5 days.

Perfectly relieves of worms, a tincture of pumpkin and wormwood seeds: the components are taken in equal parts. Seeds are poured with vodka 1: 3. Insist the medicine for a week in a dark place. Accepted 30 minutes before breakfast and dinner. The course of treatment lasts several days.

Consequences of ascariasis

Symptomatic complications are usually subdivided according to the place of parasitic ascaris. In most cases, only intestinal complications can be prevented.

How to treat roundworm in adults
How to treat roundworm in adults

The fact is that the majority of the intestines are associated with the place of parasitic worms, and the fact that the same worm can walk around the lungs or the eye, few people think. So they treat pneumonia instead of ascariasis, forgetting that symptoms and treatment are not always interrelated, and myocarditis not detected in time is a direct road to a heart attack.

Ascaris in the joints leads to the appearance of pseudoarthritis, the symptoms of which stop if ascaris is detected in time, and their treatment begins immediately. If the activity of parasites has caused irreparable damage to the joints, while the inflammatory process lasts 1.5 months or longer, most likely you will have to deal with classic arthritis that cannot be completely cured.

All the consequences (complications) of ascariasis can be divided into 2 groups: symptomatic - symptoms gradually develop into complications; asymptomatic - there were no signs of complications. Asymptomatic consequences include manifestations caused by the individual characteristics of the body, for example, many people are prone to allergies to certain foods, microclimate, odors, etc. With ascariasis, it begins to be permanent.

Intestinal complications of ascariasis:

  • appendicitis: a breakthrough of the cecum due to damage to its walls, unlike appendicitis caused by its filling, it is not always accompanied by three warnings;
  • peretonitis: unlike a breakthrough of the intestine due to a neglected ulcer or injury, there is a high probability of recovery;
  • gastritis and ulcers form much faster than due to improper nutrition;
  • with multiple re-invasions, there may be congestion or rotting of feces.

In other internal organs, the consequences are associated with inflammation or tissue damage. Despite the similarity of symptoms, the nature of the onset of diseases of the internal organs and the endocrine system is different. An exception is glaucoma. Here helminthiasis and the underlying disease coincide in symptomatology and course.

Ascaris - Prevention

Prevention of ascariasis is of great importance for the complete cure of this disease. Even after the parasites were expelled from the body, ascaris eggs could remain in the patient's environment. This factor can lead to reinfection.

Preventive measures will help to avoid new infection as a result of the ingestion of eggs and larvae of the parasite. Ignoring preventive measures increases the recurrence of ascariasis.

Preventive measures:

  • early screening of the disease: if you suspect infection with ascaris, you should undergo the necessary diagnostic research: analysis of feces for helminth eggs, a blood test for detecting antibodies to ascaris and other studies. If the result is positive, treatment is carried out, and an explanatory conversation on the observance of hygiene rules. Infection of at least 10% of the population prescribes in some countries a mandatory check once a year for all residents of the region. At 40% infection, it is recommended to carry out general preventive treatment with anthelmintic drugs;
  • thorough hygienic hand washing: since the ground is the most likely environment for the distribution of ascaris, the development of their larvae from eggs, then everyone who has contact with the soil should pay special attention to thorough hand washing;
  • washing food that is not heat treated before eating: fruits, vegetables, poultry eggs may be in contact with soil containing ascaris larvae. Since these products can be used for food without being cooked, they should be rinsed with particular care. Short-term heating at a temperature of about + 50 ° C will completely eliminate the risk of contamination from food;
How to treat roundworm in adults
How to treat roundworm in adults
  • briefing by SES staff: categories of the population at increased risk of contracting ascariasis should have complete information about this disease and precautions. These are employees of public catering, preschool institutions, agricultural workers and sewers. Such instruction must be carried out by the sanitary and epidemiological services of the region. Particular attention should be paid to educating children of the skills of observing hygiene standards by their parents and kindergarten teachers;
  • protection of soil from contamination by faeces: sanitary protection of the soil includes the following measures: analysis of the composition of the soil before the start of construction of facilities and allocation of farmland, obligatory cementing of cesspools, creation of an appropriate legal framework;
  • monitoring the condition of water supply and sewerage networks: a worn out sewerage system, due to its defects, contaminates the soil with feces. Through damage in the water pipes, Ascaris eggs enter the water for drinking and cooking;
  • vector control: Ascaris eggs can be transferred to food by flies and cockroaches when they come into contact with faeces and contaminated soil. That is why the fight against them in catering enterprises is of such great importance.

High-quality protection against infection with ascariasis is created by the joint efforts of SES doctors, epidemiologists and infectious disease specialists, as well as by the regional administration. But their efforts will be in vain if the patient becomes infected due to non-observance of basic hygiene rules.

Find out more:

  • Ascaris worms in adults: signs, symptoms and treatment
  • Ascaris: symptoms, tests and treatment in adults and children
  • Ascaris in adults: symptoms, treatment and prevention