Table of contents:
- Bovine tapeworm
- Reasons for the development of a bull tapeworm
- The structure of the bovine tapeworm
- Bovine tapeworm life cycle
- Diagnostics of the bovine tapeworm
- Pathogenic effect of bovine tapeworm in the human body
- The main symptoms of bovine tapeworm infection
- Signs of a bovine tapeworm in humans
- Treatment of bovine tapeworm in humans
- Why is the bull tapeworm dangerous?
- Prevention of bovine tapeworm
Video: Bovine Tapeworm: Symptoms In Humans And Treatments
2023 Author: Riley Dean | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 09:15
Bovine tapeworm is one of the largest parasites that live in the human body. Its length can reach 10 meters, localization is the small intestine. With the advent of the bovine tapeworm, various symptoms begin to bother a person: weakness, nausea, feeling unwell, heartburn, pain in the abdomen, etc.
The content of the article:
- 1 Bovine tapeworm
- 2 Reasons for the development of a bull tapeworm
- 3 The structure of the bovine tapeworm
- 4 Life cycle of a bovine tapeworm
- 5 Diagnosis of bovine tapeworm
- 6 Pathogenic effect of bovine tapeworm in the human body
- 7 Main symptoms of bovine tapeworm infection
- 8 Signs of a bovine tapeworm in humans
- 9 Treatment of bovine tapeworm in humans
- 10 Why the bull tapeworm is dangerous
- 11 Prevention of bovine tapeworm
Bovine tapeworm is a tapeworm parasitic. Bovine tapeworm in humans causes the disease teniarinhoz. The disease is widespread and is one of the most common parasitic diseases in humans. The life cycle of a bovine tapeworm is complex: its intermediate hosts are large ungulates, in particular cows, and the final owner is humans.
Human infection occurs when eating meat that is infected by the Finns parasite. With the development of a bovine tapeworm, symptoms in humans are caused by a violation of normal digestion and general intoxication of the body. Treatment of teniarhynchosis can be carried out using folk methods. Such treatment is based on the intake of foods and herbal preparations, which are harmful to the parasite and provoke it to leave the intestinal tract.
After that, it is recommended to apply restorative therapy, which will promote the regeneration of the damaged mucous membrane and cleanse the body of the worm's toxins. Alternative treatment is safer, since it is based on natural products and does not cause additional intoxication of the body.
Reasons for the development of a bull tapeworm
The causative agent of helminthiasis is a representative of the tapeworm class, the type of Chain - bovine tapeworm (Toeniarhinchus saginatus). This is a fairly large helminth with an average length of 6-7 meters (from 4 to 12 meters). The bovine tapeworm consists of a head, a neck and a proglottid or strobilus (segments), the number of which is large - up to 2000 pieces. Mature segments, like other helminths, are located in the distal regions and have a mature uterus (respectively, the parasite is a hermaphrodite), they are filled with oncospheres (eggs) in an amount of up to 150 pieces in each segment. Features of the tapeworm - 4 suckers on the head, the ability of the segments to crawl independently on the grass, the presence of each segment of its own reproductive system.
The ultimate master is man. In the human body, a sexually mature individual bovine tapeworm parasitizes, respectively, a person secretes eggs with feces into the environment. The segments of the tapeworm can independently crawl out and move on the patient's body after the act of defecation. Segments are allocated on the 80th day after the moment of invasion (infection).
Intermediate host - cattle, deer, zebra, yak, buffalo and others. The intermediate host becomes infected by eating oncospheres during feeding (with grass, soil). In muscle tissue, cysticercus or Finns (tapeworm larvae) develop, which becomes dangerous for human infection on average after 4-5 months.
The mechanism of infection is alimentary, and the pathway is food. Human infection occurs through raw or poorly processed meat containing Finns (invasive larvae). A sick person is not contagious for the people around him, oncospheres must go through the path of development to the larvae in the body of an intermediate host, which are dangerous for human infection. Susceptibility to teniarinhoz is general, adults are more likely to get sick.
The structure of the bovine tapeworm
The parasite that causes the disease teniarinchiasis belongs to the class of tapeworms. Its length can reach from 3 to 10 meters (average value 5-7 m). The body of the helminth consists of several parts: the head, neck and segments. The number of segments of the bovine tapeworm is impressive, more than 1000.
The helminth's head is small, only 2-3 mm, and is equipped with four suction cups with which the parasite clings to the walls of the human intestine. In the human body, it can parasitize for about 20 years, if you do not take action.
In the middle part of the body of the worm there are segments that have their own reproductive system. Each such hermaphrodite segment contains more than one and a half hundred eggs, or oncospheres. In one year, the helminth lays more than 500 million eggs, and over its entire life span, more than 10 billion. Segments grow from the neck, so in this part they are the smallest. The entire posterior part consists of sexually mature segments.
Bovine tapeworm life cycle
The bovine tapeworm, which causes teniarinhoses, is one of the largest helminths, the length of which can reach 12 meters, but often its dimensions do not exceed 6 meters in length, 5 mm in width and 2 mm in thickness. The body of the helminth consists of proglottids, of which there are about 2 thousand pieces. Its head, which in medical terminology is called scolex, has 4 suction cups, with the help of which the helminth is attached to the human intestine.
The body of the helminth that causes teniarinchiasis does not have a cavity, and there is no mouth on the head, so it feeds on the absorption of carbohydrates by the shell of proglottides, which are a source of essential nutrients for it. At the same time, each proglottid is a carrier of female and male germ cells, which allows eggs to develop inside them, with which this helminth reproduces. One segment contains up to 150 eggs fertilized and ready for a new life cycle.
If we talk about the life cycle of such a helminth as a bovine tapeworm, then it represents 4 stages. In the first stage, mature eggs are excreted in human feces into the environment. Proglottids can also be secreted, which for some time are able to move on grass or soil (for wider distribution).
In the second stage, the eggs are absorbed by cattle, and under the action of enzymes in their stomachs, their shell is destroyed, allowing the larvae (oncospheres) to spread through blood and other fluids throughout the body.
The third stage of the life cycle of the parasite causing teniarinchiasis is characterized by the entry of mature helminth larvae into the muscle tissues of cattle (cattle), and the fourth stage involves the absorption of infected meat by a person after insufficient heat treatment and the development of a new worm in his body. From the moment of infection to the moment of maturation of a sexually mature individual, about 3 months pass in the human intestine - during this time, the worm can already reach several meters in length, and it begins to actively release new eggs into the environment, repeating the life cycle.
Diagnostics of the bovine tapeworm
Diagnosis of a bovine tapeworm presents certain difficulties. The fact is that the disease has few specific symptoms by which one could suspect the presence of a parasite in the body.
In this regard, a delicate questioning of the patient is of particular importance to establish the fact that cysticercus crawled out of his anus. It is this symptom that is of great importance in terms of determining the invasion. Very often, patients also notice segments in the feces after the act of defecation.
If it is not possible to find the segments, then a provocation of their release is possible: the use of pumpkin seeds, garlic or a saline laxative. If there is a suspicion of the presence of a parasitic disease, then the feces are analyzed for eggs and fragments of worm strobila. This analysis is called "coproovoscopy".
Additional examination methods are: thick smear method (Kato method); beneficiation method (Fulleborn precipitation method and Kalantaryan flotation method); perianal-rectal scraping; print on adhesive tape.
Since the above examination methods do not allow to clarify which tapeworm parasitizes in the human body: pork or bovine, it is necessary to carefully study the mature segments. So, the lateral branches of the uterus of the bovine tapeworm are in the amount of 18 to 32 pieces. While the uterus of the pork tapeworm of lateral branches on one side will have from 8 to 12 pieces.
Sometimes the worm can be detected during contrast radiography of the small intestine. It looks like light stripes. As for the general blood test, an increase in the number of eosinophils, leukopenia and anemia can be found in it. However, these indicators are passing.
Pathogenic effect of bovine tapeworm in the human body
- mechanical impact (suckers, activity of the segments), violation of the secretory and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract (catarrhal inflammation of the intestinal mucosa);
- provocation of pain syndrome when the segments pass through the Bauhinia valve (as with appendicitis);
- the accumulation of tapeworms in the intestine leads to intestinal obstruction or inflammation;
- deficiency of valuable nutrients due to their intensive consumption by chain;
- sensitization of the body (development of an allergic reaction).
The main symptoms of bovine tapeworm infection
Infection with a parasitic helminth bovine tapeworm in humans is usually divided into two stages: initial, which is almost asymptomatic, and chronic, in which the following symptoms appear:
- the nervous system is upset, there is increased fatigue, weakness, headaches and insomnia;
- heartburn, nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia or constipation, abnormal salivation;
- unlocalized pain in the abdomen, without a specific location: in the stomach, on both sides of the abdomen or in its lower part;
- a sharp change in appetite from complete absence to severe hunger;
- the main and indisputable sign of infection with bovine tapeworm is the exit of the segments of the worm through the anus on its own or with feces.
It also happens that the symptoms are completely absent and a person with a bovine tapeworm in the body does not feel any negative changes, and for a long time does not seek medical help. Then the only way to find out that he has teniarinchiasis is the accidentally seen proglottid in the feces - this is how many people find out that they are infected with bovine tapeworm.
Sometimes it also happens that the main symptoms are absent, but a person is disturbed by unpleasant sensations in the anus, or he can observe the movement of proglottids along the legs during his wakefulness, which can often be extremely unpleasant to surprise.
Signs of a bovine tapeworm in humans
Parasitizing the worm causes a number of disturbances in the normal functioning of the body, which is manifested by a complex of signs:
- indigestion nausea and vomiting; increased salivation; loss of appetite or, conversely, increased appetite; constipation or diarrhea; in the study, a decrease in the acidity of gastric juice is noted; pain in the abdomen, colic;
with the development of a bovine tapeworm, symptoms include signs of general intoxication with the products of the worm's metabolism. These products enter the bloodstream and have a toxic effect on all structures. In addition, depletion of the body is noted, since the worm consumes more nutrients from food.
Also noted: headache and dizziness; irritability or, conversely, apathy; in rare cases, convulsions occur; general weakness, which can also be caused by a lack of nutrients; decreased immunity, anemia; weight loss;
- allergic manifestations In some cases, an allergy develops to the metabolic products of the worm. Typical signs of this condition: urticaria, skin irritation, itching; lacrimation; allergic rhinitis; allergic bronchitis and bronchial asthma. Allergic manifestations can be present constantly, since the source of sensitization is inside the human body. In rare cases, the worm may spread outside the intestine. In this case, a person develops an atypical clinical picture. If it enters the gallbladder, then the patient has an attack of acute cholecystitis. The worm can also enter the pancreas, causing pancreatitis.
However, with the development of a tapeworm in a person, the causes can be smoothed out, since the body adapts to the presence of the worm. There is no sharp deterioration in health. Sometimes the only sign of the development of a parasite in a person is a feeling of itching and irritation of the skin around the anus when the movable segment exits.
Treatment of bovine tapeworm in humans
In the treatment of bovine tapeworm, artificial deworming are used: chemical preparations of high toxicity. How does a bull tapeworm come out? As a rule, the patient is prescribed several different medications at once, aimed not only at detaching the parasite from the wall of the small intestine, but also at its evacuation from the body.
However, the treatment of bovine tapeworm does not require a single dose of medication, but long-term therapy and recovery, which chemical pills for bovine tapeworm cannot always provide due to a wide range of side effects.
The patient is prescribed anthelmintic drugs, the main of which is Fenasal, and the additional one is Biltricid. Fenasal is taken either in the evening after a light dinner, or in the morning on an empty stomach. The dosage is selected by the doctor, on average for an adult it is 2-3 g. Biltricid is also taken once.
After taking the drug, the parasite leaves the anus without any additional measures. On the eve of treatment and during therapy, a sparing diet is shown: exclusion of fatty, fried, smoked, salty and sweet foods; the basis of the diet is low-fat soups, rice, buckwheat, dairy products, low-fat fish; drinks - jelly, compotes, teas; An absolute ban is imposed on beets, cabbage, spinach, grapes, peaches, raspberries, gooseberries, chocolate, coffee, alcohol, apricots, legumes. Eat small meals, at least 5 times a day.
It is possible to supplement the main therapeutic scheme with phytotherapy. For this purpose, the doctor prescribes capsules with male fern extract, pumpkin seeds. For the period of treatment, the setting of cleansing enemas, the intake of laxatives are indicated. The criteria for cure are the absence of segments in the patient's feces for 4 months after the therapeutic course. If the segments are found, then the therapy is repeated with the same drugs.
It is possible to expel the tapeworm from a person, if the symptoms and diagnostics have confirmed the disease with teniarinhoses, not only in the hospital, but also at home. For example, Niclosamide is taken 2 grams at night, chewing the tablets well and drinking them with water. 15 minutes before taking, it is better to drink one gram of baking soda. Biltricide is also taken once a day before bedtime. The dosage is calculated based on the patient's weight.
In order to facilitate the removal of worms, at the first dose, a laxative is always prescribed (a few hours after the pill) or enemas.
The prognosis for recovery is most often favorable. Doctors try to relieve patients from teniarhynchosis as soon as possible and observe them for another 3-4 months. In addition, people at risk, such as farm and livestock workers, are screened with particular care.
Treatment includes three main stages, on the observance of which the success of treatment depends:
preparatory - lasts about two weeks. During this period, the body is cleansed of toxins that tapeworm secretes in the process of life. Sorbents are used, for example Enterosgel. They can be substituted with pumpkin or linseed oil. They need to be drunk 1 tsp. before every meal;
- direct impact on the helminth - the use of antiparasitic drugs. Biltricid, Praziquantel, Fenasal and others are used. The doctor will select the dosage and regimen individually. Often, treatment with these drugs is carried out in a hospital under the supervision of a specialist. The effectiveness of the treatment is assessed after 3 months;
- restorative measures for the whole body - diet, vitamin complexes and herbal medicine in order to strengthen immunity and restore the digestive tract.
The bovine tapeworm is the most dangerous of the helminths. The threat is posed not only by its size and the duration of "residence" in the host's body, but the latent early period of progression, which makes treatment more difficult and time-consuming.
Why is the bull tapeworm dangerous?
Bovine tapeworm is very dangerous for humans. What is the danger of a bull tapeworm for humans:
- mechanical intestinal obstruction. This happens when there are several worms in the intestines, or in the event that a single individual gets entangled and strays into a lump;
- cholecystitis and cholangitis. The worm can enter the biliary tract, blocking the natural outflow of bile, which leads to the development of these complications. In medicine, a case of blockage by a bovine chain of the bile duct with the subsequent development of fatty necrosis of the pancreas is described;
- pancreatitis. The introduction of helminths into the tissue of the pancreas is not excluded;
- peritoneal abscess. A complication develops when the intestinal wall is perforated and when the worm enters the abdominal cavity.
Prevention of bovine tapeworm
- Timely identification of infected persons. For this, once a year, all livestock breeders (milkmaids, shepherds, calves, etc.) and their family members are examined. Workers of meat processing plants and slaughterhouses are subject to examination;
- complete exclusion of the possibility of eating raw or insufficiently thermally processed cow meat;
- high-quality heat treatment of meat, allowing to kill the larvae of the worm. To do this, it must be boiled or baked in small pieces for 1-3 hours;
- timely referral to a specialist when symptoms are detected that indicate a possible infection with bovine tapeworm;
- careful inspection of meat before purchase. Sometimes the larvae of the worm can be seen even with the naked eye, especially with massive invasion;
- detection of disease in animals during veterinary and sanitary examination of meat. If the Finns of bovine tapeworm are found in meat, then before implementation it is disinfected by thorough boiling in boilers, subject to certain standards;
- protecting the environment from contamination with bovine tapeworm eggs. For this, the state services exercise control over the observance of sanitary and hygienic measures at livestock farms and farms. It is important that there are separate toilets for staff.
No less important is educational work among the population, which is aimed at informing people about possible sources of parasitic infestation.
Find out more:
- Helminth worms. What worms live in a person. Types of parasites
- Worms in adults: signs, symptoms and treatment
- Worms in an adult: signs, symptoms and treatment regimen
- Ascaris worms in adults: signs, symptoms and treatment
- Worms in humans - symptoms, diagnosis, treatment
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