Table of contents:
- What is chlamydia
- How chlamydia is transmitted
- What is chlamydia
- Methods for laboratory diagnosis of chlamydia
- Chlamydia in women: causes of the disease and its prevention
- Chlamydia in men, causes and symptoms of infection
- Chlamydia in children: routes of infection and types of disease
- How the infection is transmitted from mother to fetus and newborn
- Complications of chlamydia in men
- Complications of chlamydia in women
Chlamydia - symptoms. Chlamydia is a group of acute and chronic infections caused in humans by intracellular parasites - chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae). It is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. With this disease, damage to the urethra (urethra), rectum, vagina, cervix and eyes is possible. Chlamydiae are dangerous to human health: if they affect the genitals, then it is fraught with serious complications such as infertility.
The content of the article:
- 1 What is chlamydia
- 2 How are chlamydia transmitted
- 3 What is chlamydia
- 4 Methods of laboratory diagnosis of chlamydia
- 5 Chlamydia in women: causes of the disease and its prevention
- 6 Chlamydia in men causes and symptoms of infection
- 7 Chlamydia in children: routes of infection and types of disease
- 8 How the infection is transmitted from mother to fetus and newborn
- 9 Complications of chlamydia in men
- 10 Complications of chlamydia in women
What is chlamydia
Chlamydiae are microbes with unique properties. They are a transitional form between viruses and bacteria. Like bacteria, they have a cell membrane and a set of intracellular organelles, and like viruses, they are extremely small and their life cycle takes place exclusively in the cells of the affected organism.
For their vital activity, they need the nutrients of the host cells (that is, in fact, they are intracellular parasites). The genus of chlamydia has more than a dozen species that provoke ailments in both humans and most animals.
Chlamidiya trachomatis and Chlamidiya pneumoniae carry the greatest danger to humans. But other representatives of the genus can also provoke a disease in humans. Chlamydia - bacteria of a small size, depend on the host cell, being in fact parasites, only inside the cells.
The incidence of infection in Russia reaches 12-15%. Among gynecological patients who suffer from inflammatory processes, chlamydia is found in 30%, in women with tubal infertility - up to 60%, among women with infertility in 50%.
Consequences of untreated genital chlamydia: intrauterine infection of the fetus, ectopic pregnancy, chronic inflammatory diseases of the appendages, tubal infertility, frozen pregnancy, spontaneous miscarriages, premature birth.
How chlamydia is transmitted
How chlamydia is transmitted is of interest to many people who care about their health.
Chlamydia - symptoms. Contrary to the well-known opinion that it is possible to contract an unpleasant disease only after sexual intercourse, there are different ways of transmission of the microorganism, in particular:
Sexual contact: really is the most likely cause of the development of an infectious disease, and it does not matter what kind of sex people are having: oral (blowjob, cunnilingus), genital or anal.
The risk of infection in women is higher than in men due to the fact that the vaginal mucous membranes contain more cylindrical cells than the male genital organ.
It should be borne in mind that a partner can only be a carrier of dangerous microorganisms, that is, not have visible manifestations of the presence of chlamydia in the body. The only obstacle to infection can be a condom or sex with a stable, healthy partner.
Airborne droplets: Chlamydia is used, which affects the respiratory system, causing pneumonia. How are chlamydia transmitted in this case? Infection of a person occurs at the moment when the patient coughs or sneezes near him. However, infection in this way occurs very rarely, since there must be a huge number of pathogenic agents in the sputum of a sick person.
Contact-household route: much less often the previous one becomes the cause of the development of an infectious disease, but such a probability exists. In this case, the microorganism is fixed on the mucous membranes of the organs of vision, throat, and genitals. Chlamydiae can enter the body from dirty hands, shared towels, underwear, personal hygiene items.
In rare cases, infection occurs after contact with food - poultry meat, unwashed vegetables and fruits. Chlamydia can linger for a short time on various objects, door handles, toilet rim.
Different types of infectious agent are transmitted by shaking hands with a sick person or contact with an infected animal, for example, if a dog or cat has chlamydial conjunctivitis.
From mother to fetus: Chlamydia can be transmitted in utero, at the time the baby passes through the birth canal, or through household items after birth.
It should be noted that when kissing, chlamydia is almost never transmitted, since there are not so many infectious agents in saliva to cause infection. Chlamydia cannot stay in the mouth for a long time, and once it gets into the stomach, they die.
Chlamydia - symptoms. In order for the infection to occur in this way, an infected person must be sick with chlamydia in a very severe form. For the same reason, it is wrong to think that this infection can be contracted in water bodies, since the amount of chlamydia in the water is too small for infection.
What is chlamydia
Chlamydia - symptoms. Urogenital (genitourinary) chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. The problem of urogenital chlamydia is very acute today. In recent years, there has been an increase in chlamydia both among sexually active adults (men and women from 20 to 40 years old) and among adolescents.
Early sexual relations, unprotected sex with casual partners, lack of awareness of the possible consequences of such relationships put chlamydia in one of the first places in the list of genital infections. Almost 90 million people are infected with chlamydia every year.
Persons with reduced immunity are especially susceptible to chlamydia. In 40% of cases, chlamydial infection becomes the cause of various gynecological diseases, in 50% - tubal-peritoneal infertility.
The combination of several infections aggravate each other's course and lengthen the treatment. Women are more susceptible to chlamydia. The most common route of transmission of chlamydia is sexual.
Infection of a newborn is possible during childbirth, it is accompanied by the development of congenital chlamydia in the child. Much less common is the household transmission of chlamydia in the family through bedding and toiletries, linen, etc. Usually, 1-2 weeks pass from the moment of infection to the onset of the first symptoms of chlamydia (less often up to 1 month).
The causative agent of urogenital chlamydia - Chlamidia trachomatis - is a small bacterium that parasitizes inside human cells. Chlamydiae are able to exist for a long time in the human body and not manifest themselves.
When the defenses are suppressed, the body weakened, they begin to actively multiply and cause clinical manifestations of chlamydia. There are 15 different types of chlamydia that cause damage to the eyes, lymph nodes, urogenital organs, etc.
Methods for laboratory diagnosis of chlamydia
Chlamydia - symptoms. Diagnosis of chlamydial genital infection is a rather complex problem. The difficulty of identifying this pathogenic microorganism is associated with the peculiarities of its life and functioning.
First of all, it should be pointed out that chlamydia is an intracellular microorganism. This means that chlamydia is able to penetrate into cells and live in the host cell. The cells of the host are most often the cells of the epithelium of the mucous membranes of the genital organs of men and women.
It is with this intracellular form of life that numerous relapses of chronic diseases of the genitourinary organs are associated. That is, chlamydia remains inside the cells, and when favorable conditions come for it, it leaves the host cell again, causing an exacerbation of the chronic inflammatory process.
Numerous attempts to treat chronic infections of the genitourinary organs, including those caused by chlamydia, lead to the chronicity of the process and the emergence of resistant forms of the pathogen.
Very often, together with chlamydial infection, other infections caused by opportunistic microorganisms are also combined. Conditionally pathogenic microorganisms are present in the human body in normal conditions, however, with a decrease in immune defense, they can cause the development of infectious inflammatory diseases.
A decrease in immune defense can be caused by a variety of factors, including chronic persistent intracellular chlamydia.
Today, the following methods are used:
- express tests; smear;
- immune fluorescence reaction (RIF);
- serological methods (complement fixation test - RSK);
- enzyme immunoassay (ELISA);
- cultural method (bacteriological culture);
- DNA methods (polymerase chain reaction - PCR, ligase chain reaction - LGC; transcriptional amplification - TA, DNA probe method).
Chlamydia in women: causes of the disease and its prevention
Chlamydia - symptoms. Chlamydia for the fair sex is primarily dangerous because it can lead to infertility. Chlamydia gets on the mucous membranes of the genitourinary system from the infected partner during sex. The infection can also start on the intestinal walls if you have had anal sex experience.
Chlamydia is not spread by kissing. However, it can be transmitted orally if a condom is not used. Barrier contraceptives can protect against infection, but even a condom is not a 100% guarantee of safe intercourse. Much less often, chlamydia is transmitted by the household route.
Three out of a hundred people become infected due to the use of hygiene products of the carrier of chlamydia. Chlamydia during pregnancy is a great threat to women, the causes of infection are the same. To them you can also add the activation of "asleep" chlamydia.
A feature of these parasitic microorganisms is their high adaptability to the cells in which they live. That is, if they were not completely removed from the patient's body, they can asymptomatically parasitize in the human body for up to several years, waiting for a "convenient" case. Pregnancy and hormonal changes are a good time to activate the infection.
This sexually transmitted disease is treated, albeit with great difficulty. It is much easier to protect yourself from this disease. It is enough to use condoms, maintain personal hygiene and have sex with one partner. In case of unprotected sex, we recommend that you regularly take tests to identify chlamydia.
Chlamydia in men, causes and symptoms of infection
Chlamydia - symptoms. Chlamydiae are mainly localized on the mucous membranes of the genitourinary system, therefore, for sick men, they are dangerous with problems with urination, prostate and infertility. Chlamydia is transmitted in men in the same way as in women.
Chlamydia, like any parasite, cannot live outside the host's body. However, in some cases (about 5% of all cases), the infection can be transmitted by household or airborne droplets.
This method of infection is more typical for baths and saunas, where a humid warm microclimate allows infectious microorganisms to be outside the human body for a short time and quickly find a new owner. Knowing the causes of chlamydia, try to avoid them.
Unprotected intercourse with a carrier of the infection is the most common way of getting sick.
See your doctor immediately if you find one of the symptoms: groin pain and burning sensation when urinating, itching and inflammation around the urethra, urinary excretion of mucopurulent filaments, vitreous mucous discharge.
A disease diagnosed in time is much easier to cure than an advanced form of infection, which is difficult to treat, but at the same time is the cause of many serious diseases.
Chlamydia in children: routes of infection and types of disease
Chlamydia - symptoms. In addition to the indicated reasons for the transmission of infection, there is also the so-called "vertical" route of infection. In this way, the patient during pregnancy can infect the fetus. Chlamydia can also get to the baby when passing through the birth canal. A baby can also become infected from mother's breast milk.
Chlamydia gets into the amniotic fluid, which is swallowed by the fetus, in the child's body microorganisms primarily affect the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Chlamydia for children is also dangerous with other consequences: intrauterine growth retardation, conjunctivitis, pyelonephritis and a number of other diseases with complications.
Currently, all these types of diseases are curable with timely diagnosis.
Of course, a fragile child's body is more susceptible to infection by airborne droplets and by household. Depending on the route of infection, several types of chlamydial infection are distinguished: congenital, respiratory and pulmonary.
However, take care of your children's health beforehand. Before conception, undergo research to identify the infection, together with your partner, recover from existing diseases and only then begin to prepare for parenting. This will make your life easier, and of course, the life of your baby!
How the infection is transmitted from mother to fetus and newborn
Chlamydia - symptoms. The placental barrier protects the fetus from various infections, but some disease-causing agents are able to penetrate it. Even if the pregnancy went well, at the time of childbirth and the first months after the birth of the child, the body is still very weak to prevent various infections, so the baby can easily become infected.
- when carrying a fetus: the release of nutrients to the fetus occurs through the placenta, which also performs a protective function, not allowing bacteria to pass through. If the placenta has undergone pathological changes for some reason, chlamydia can easily penetrate through it into the amniotic fluid. Further, microorganisms penetrate into the mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth, stomach, and after a while they affect the internal organs, which can lead to the death of the fetus.
- At the moment of birth: how can you get chlamydia in this case? If a woman is sick with chlamydia, then it is natural that they are present on the mucous membranes of the vagina - the path along which the child moves at birth. This path is less dangerous than the previous one, since infectious agents only enter the outer mucous membranes, but if the obstetrician knows about the disease, then the woman will be offered to have a cesarean section.
- After birth: transmission of infection to infants occurs through the household route if an infected person lives in the family. This is especially true of the child's mother, as they are constantly in close contact. A common towel, unwashed hands, and personal belongings become sources of infection. It is possible to exclude infection of the child if personal hygiene is carefully observed.
Complications of chlamydia in men
Chlamydia - symptoms. Urogenital complications of chlamydia in men are chlamydial prostatitis, urethritis, epididymitis.
Prostatitis: develops when the prostate gland is involved in the infectious process. Chlamydial prostatitis is accompanied by unpleasant sensations and pain in the lower back, rectum, perineum, minor mucous or watery discharge from the urethra, difficulty urinating, impaired potency.
Urethritis: proceeds with a lesion of the urethra and is characterized by itching in the urethra, frequent painful urge to urinate, mucopurulent discharge. Chronic urethritis caused by chlamydia leads to urethral stricture.
Epididymitis: develops with inflammation of the epididymis, which is accompanied by high fever, edema and redness of the scrotum, an increase in the epididymis.
Urogenital complications of chlamydia are fraught with impaired spermatogenesis and infertility for men.
Complications of chlamydia in women
Chlamydia - symptoms. Complications of chlamydia in women can be very serious and directly depend on how long the pathogen is in the body. Chlamydiae cause a variety of lesions of the female reproductive system.
Complications of chlamydia in women:
- as she becomes involved in the inflammatory process of the cervix, a woman may develop endocervicitis. In addition, the risk of developing neoplasms of the cervix increases several times;
- if the mucous membrane of the uterine cavity is affected, then the woman develops endometritis;
- with damage to the fallopian tubes, salpingitis is formed, and salpingo-oophoritis - with inflammation of the uterine appendages. This further leads to the formation of adhesions and cicatricial changes in the fallopian tubes. As a result, the woman is diagnosed with tubal infertility. Possible ectopic pregnancy, miscarriages;
- chlamydia can spread not only through the genitourinary system, but also affect other organs, for example, the pharynx, intestines, joints, kidneys, bronchi, etc. This leads to the development of ophthalmochlamydia, chlamydial pneumonia, etc.;
- possible deformation of the urethra with subsequent urination disorders. So, penetrating into its mucous membrane, chlamydia destroys normal cells, which are subsequently replaced by scar tissue. As a result, the canal narrows, which provokes problems with emptying the bladder. This is expressed in pain, frequent trips to the toilet with the release of small portions of urine, in a false urge to urinate. In addition, the risk of a secondary infection - cystitis, and subsequently pyelonephritis increases;
- the local protection of the vagina and internal genital organs of a woman falls due to the negative influence of chlamydia. As a result, a favorable environment is formed there for the reproduction of conditionally pathogenic flora, which previously did not harm a woman's health. A frequent companion of chlamydia is vaginal candidiasis;
- Reiter's disease is a complication of chlamydia, which is expressed in arthritis, urethritis and conjunctivitis.
Chlamydia - symptoms. If we turn to statistics, then chlamydial inflammation in 50% of cases becomes the cause of infertility and in 40% - the cause of various gynecological diseases.
Find out more:
- Chlamydia. Diagnostics, analyzes, results and treatment
- Chlamydia in women - causes, symptoms, diagnosis
- Chlamydia in men - treatment and prevention
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