Chlamydia In A Woman - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

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Chlamydia In A Woman - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment
Chlamydia In A Woman - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

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Chlamydia in a woman - symptoms, diagnosis, treatment Chlamydia in a woman is quite common. Symptoms of the disease can go unnoticed for a long time, and can be manifested by fever, fatigue and weakness. Genitourinary (urogenital) chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs), along with syphilis, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis. Genitourinary chlamydia is most common in sexually active individuals aged 20–40 years, as well as in adolescents. Women are more susceptible to disease. The prevalence of infection is extremely high - chlamydia is diagnosed in about half of all cases of inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary tract in women. Chlamydia in women is often combined with other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).In this case, infections aggravate each other, acquire resistance to …

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Chlamydia in women is quite common. Symptoms of the disease can go unnoticed for a long time, and can be manifested by fever, fatigue and weakness. Genitourinary (urogenital) chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs), along with syphilis, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis. Genitourinary chlamydia is most common in sexually active individuals aged 20–40 years, as well as in adolescents. Women are more susceptible to disease. The prevalence of infection is extremely high - chlamydia is diagnosed in about half of all cases of inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary tract in women. Chlamydia in women is often combined with other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In this case, the infections aggravate each other,acquire resistance to antibacterial effects, the duration of the disease increases. In the presence of genitourinary chlamydia, the body's susceptibility to syphilis and HIV infection increases.

In no case should chladmidiosis be left untreated, as there is a high risk of complications: adhesions in the fallopian tubes, cervical erosion, frozen pregnancy, infertility.

The content of the article:

  • 1 Description of the disease
  • 2 Ways of infection
  • 3 How does chlamydia manifest in women
  • 4 Chlamydia in a woman: symptoms
  • 5 Diagnosis of chlamydia
  • 6 Which doctor to contact
  • 7 Treatment of chlamydia

    • 7.1 Combination therapy
    • 7.2 Interferon preparations
  • 8 Consequences of chlamydia
  • 9 Prevention of chlamydia

Description of the disease

Chlamydia is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydiae are very interesting microorganisms from a scientific point of view. Despite the fact that they belong to the kingdom of bacteria, nevertheless, chlamydia has certain traits that make them closer to viruses. This applies primarily to their ability to infect cells of the body and multiply directly in them. Bacteria are unable to produce some of the enzymes necessary for their vital activity, and therefore can live only in other people's cells. Thus, chlamydiae are intracellular parasites.

Who treats chlamydia in women
Who treats chlamydia in women

Chlamydia in a woman. The infectious form of chlamydia, however, can live in the extracellular space. Once in a living cell, chlamydiae acquire the ability to divide, increase in size and turn into the so-called reticular form. In this type, chlamydia multiply. After the formation of new bacterial cells, they leave the host cell, and it dies. This entire process takes 2-3 days. And bacteria, in turn, are sent in search of new victim cells. As the disease progresses, it takes on a chronic form, and bacteria capture not only the lower, but also the upper parts of the genitourinary system.

The bacteria are quite resistant to adverse influences and can exist in room conditions for up to two days. The incubation period for chlamydia is 2 to 4 weeks.

The main method of transmission of bacteria from person to person is sexual. In this case, infection with chlamydia can occur both during vaginal sex and during oral and anal sex. Also, some scientists are inclined to believe that infection can occur through household items. Another way of transmission of chlamydia is from mother to newborn baby.

It is not yet clear whether chlamydia can enter the child's body directly through the placenta. However, the proven route of infection is the birth process, in which the child passes through the mother's birth canal infected with chlamydia. Most often, the child develops chlamydial conjunctivitis (in 50% of cases). Pneumonia may occur somewhat less frequently, but it carries an even greater danger.

Infection routes

The course of the disease in the future largely depends on how exactly the pathogenic microorganism entered a person. There are four main routes of infection:

Sexual route of infection
Sexual route of infection
  • Sexual route. Most often, infection occurs in this way. The penetration of chlamydia becomes possible as a result of unprotected intercourse. Infection can occur as a result of any kind of intercourse: oral, anal and vaginal. With this path, the vaginal mucosa is primarily affected. From it, chlamydia easily enters the fallopian tubes, covering the entire surface. If you do not start treatment in time, the infection will spread to the urinary tract. The development of cystitis is quite likely.
  • Vertical path. This is how the infection of a newborn baby occurs. If a woman suffered from chlamydia during pregnancy, a fairly large amount of pathogenic flora has accumulated in her vagina. During childbirth, the baby, passing through the birth canal, becomes infected from a sick mother. As a result, he may develop chlamydial conjunctivitis and lung damage. There is an opinion that even while in the womb, a child can already become infected with this infection. But the reliability of this hypothesis has not yet been proven.
  • Contact-household way. No one can one hundred percent prove chlamydia infection in this way, but no one is able to deny the existence of such a path either. There is an opinion that this infection can be "picked up" from the clothes of a random oncoming person on the street, in public transport and just in the crowd. If you wipe yourself off with a towel after a sick person, the risk of infection is quite real, since the bacterium can live on cotton fabric for two days. But only if the ambient temperature corresponded to +18 degrees. Deviations in temperature by at least a degree or two are fraught with the death of the pathogenic microorganism.
  • Airborne method. A rather rare way, but this is how chlamydia infection occurs from a patient with chlamydial pneumonia.

How does chlamydia manifest in women

Chlamydia in a woman. The acute form of the disease is accompanied by profuse discharge, edema and redness of the mucous membranes of the vagina, frequent urge to urinate, sometimes severe pain in the lower abdomen. However, this course of chlamydia is extremely rare. According to medical statistics, obvious symptoms of the disease are observed in only 3% of cases.

In other episodes, infections caused by chlamydia do not make themselves felt immediately, but after months and even years from the moment of infection.

In addition, chlamydia can be disguised as some other pathologies (gonorrhea, ureaplasmosis, mycoplasmosis, herpes), as it can coexist peacefully with them. As a result, some patients develop a chronic form, and often the treatment of chlamydia in women is delayed for a long time.

Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of many gynecological inflammatory and obstetric diseases. Chlamydial infection is usually asymptomatic or asymptomatic. It should be noted that with re-infection, the risk of complications increases.

Chlamydia in a woman: symptoms

In women with chlamydia, symptoms can often be subtle or not noticeable at all. This feature is more typical for women than for men. In women, chlamydia occurs in a similar way in 70% of cases.

Signs of chlamydia in women may include fever. This usually occurs shortly after infection. The temperature rises to subfebrile values ​​- + 37-37.5 ° C, fatigue and weakness may appear. However, the temperature may subsequently drop to normal values.

Who treats chlamydia in women
Who treats chlamydia in women

In chlamydia, symptoms are usually associated with the condition of the genitourinary organs. Chlamydia in women primarily affects their mucous membranes. Therefore, indirect signs of chlamydia in women can be conditions such as inflammation of the cervix, fallopian tubes, appendages, endometrium, Bartholin glands, urethra, cystitis, colpitis. Chlamydia can also lead to the formation of adhesions in the abdominal cavity, which is fraught with infertility.

Signs of chlamydia in women may include slight pulling-type pain in the lower abdomen, itching, burning, cramps when urinating, a feeling of high humidity in the genital area, frequent urination, menstrual irregularities, and back pain. However, many women are not inclined to pay attention to these symptoms or associate them with some other cause.

But one of the main symptoms of chlamydia in women is the appearance of unusual discharge from the genitals. Discharge in chlamydia in women has an abnormal appearance. They usually have a whitish or yellow color, a mucopurulent consistency and an unpleasant odor.

In most cases, together with chlamydia, other microorganisms are also detected (gardnerella, staphylococcus, streptococcus, gonococcus, ureaplasma). A pregnant woman infected with chlamydia is a source of infection for a newborn, which leads to infection of the internal organs of the baby. To date, intrauterine transmission of microorganisms has been established.

Chlamydia diagnosis

Chlamydia in a woman. If there are signs of chlamydia, even if there is only a suspicion of the disease, you should consult a doctor. To identify an infection, a number of diagnostic measures are required. First of all, this is a visual examination by a gynecologist. It will help determine the lesions of the mucous membranes of the genital organs characteristic of infectious diseases, the pathology of the cervix.

Who treats chlamydia in women
Who treats chlamydia in women

Chlamydia in a woman. Also informative is the analysis of the patient's history, the presence of gynecological problems in the past. There are several diseases in which there is significant reason to suspect chlamydia:

  • infertility (for a year or more),
  • cervicitis,
  • complicated pregnancy (polyhydramnios, fetal growth retardation, threat of miscarriage).

If such problems are detected, even if a smear on chlamydia from the vagina does not show the presence of pathogenic microflora, the patient must undergo a thorough examination for chlamydia. Practice shows that the probability that this diagnosis will be confirmed is quite high - about 80%.

In patients with chlamydia, it is not always easy to identify the pathogen. In particular, the discharge in chlamydia in women is similar to those observed in other diseases - herpes, gonorrhea, etc. However, there are methods that make this possible.

Who treats chlamydia in women
Who treats chlamydia in women

The most accurate test is for the detection of particles of DNA molecules in bacteria - a test using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the presence of chlamydia in a patient, it gives almost one hundred percent result. Other types of research can also be carried out, for example, fluorescence detection of pathogens (immunofluorescence, enzyme immunoassay). The probability of detecting bacteria with this method is 50%.

Sowing for bacteria in a nutrient medium is also carried out (the probability of detecting chlamydia is 70%), the search for antibodies in the blood is a serological study, the identification of pathogens in a smear from the vagina (the probability of detection is low and is 15%).

In addition, ultrasound can be used, in which changes in the tissues of the reproductive organs characteristic of chlamydia are revealed. The sooner the disease is diagnosed, the more chances for a successful cure of the disease.

Which doctor to contact

Chlamydia in a woman. As with any sexually transmitted infection, it will be correct to see a venereologist. However, a urologist will also diagnose and prescribe treatment. In addition, gynecologists often face the problem of chlamydia in women, especially when planning or monitoring pregnancy.

Chlamydia treatment

Chlamydia in a woman. After diagnosing chlamydia and other STIs and establishing the diagnosis, the doctor prescribes appropriate treatment. There are a lot of tips on the Internet on how to treat chlamydia, including with the help of folk recipes. However, the treatment regimen for chlamydia is selected individually for each patient.

It is important that the therapy is comprehensive and includes antibacterial, immunostimulating, and local anti-inflammatory drugs. It is impossible to cure both chlamydia and other genital infections with herbs alone, but they can help alleviate the symptoms. Chlamydia drugs are antibiotics in the first place.

The course of treatment for chlamydia is designed for 3 weeks, and both partners must undergo it at the same time.

The doctor prescribes antibiotics based on the severity of the chlamydia disease, the results of your tests, depending on which organs are affected by the infection.

If the drug itself and its dosage are chosen incorrectly, then the bacteria will be resistant to this antibiotic. During the treatment of chlamydia, the doctor takes into account the factor of addiction to the antibiotic and prescribes antibiotics from different pharmacological groups in the course of treatment for chlamydia.

Who treats chlamydia in women
Who treats chlamydia in women

You will need to protect yourself from the sun during antibiotic treatment. It also requires abstinence from intimate contact during treatment.

As a rule, a second course of treatment is recommended to exclude a relapse. Negative test results for chlamydia in both partners serve as proof of cure.

Combination therapy

The key to successfully getting rid of chlamydial infection is an individually tailored complex treatment. For what they use methods of external and internal exposure to pathogens.

Treatment of chlamydia in women includes two main points: the choice of antibacterial agents to which chlamydia is sensitive (the antimicrobial effect is due to a violation of protein synthesis on the ribosomes of the microbial cell), as well as the appointment of drugs that correct and increase immunity. The course of antibiotic therapy depends on the stage of development of pathogens, the nature of clinical manifestations and the location of the infection.

An important role in the treatment of the disease is assigned to immunomodulators, since chlamydia causes a decrease in the defenses, which aggravates its course and postpones the moment of recovery. Some of them (interferons) have an anti-Chlamydin effect, that is, they block the reproduction of these pathogens.

Interferon preparations

Together with the use of antibiotics, it is advisable to use means to maintain immunity, which include interferon preparations (inducers, immunoactivators). Most medicines from this group have immunostimulating effects that the body may not need.

Who treats chlamydia in women
Who treats chlamydia in women

Unlike such drugs, the modern Russian drug VIFERON. Suppositories corrects the ability of the cells of the immune system to produce their own interferon, and in the foci of inflammation restores the permeability of cell membranes, thereby blocking the access of chlamydia to healthy cells.

Moreover, the medicine acts not only on the development cycle of pathogens when they already have infectious properties, but also on when chlamydia is just beginning to acquire them. In addition, in the complex treatment, thanks to the drug, it becomes possible to reduce the course doses of antibacterial agents, which prevents the emergence of chlamydia pathogens resistant to them.

The consequences of chlamydia

Chlamydia in a woman. However, chlamydia is much more dangerous than it seems at first glance. Chlamydia can have a number of unpleasant complications. As it develops, chlamydia can also affect other tissues of the body - teeth, joints, eyes and even the heart. For women infected with chlamydia, Reiter's syndrome is characteristic, in which arthritis, conjunctivitis, and inflammation of the vagina are observed.

There is a risk of severe lesions of the urinary system - urethritis, purulent cystitis, narrowing of the urethra. Against the background of chlamydia, Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome can also occur, which is characterized by simultaneous inflammation of the peritoneum (peritonitis) and the liver capsule.

But chlamydia is most dangerous for pregnant women. Infection can cause abnormal pregnancy, including ectopic pregnancy, polyhydramnios, early termination of pregnancy or missed pregnancy. Can provoke chlamydia in women, premature birth and prematurity of the fetus.

If the child is still born at the right time, then due to infection with chlamydia (in the womb or during childbirth), he may develop inflammatory diseases such as conjunctivitis and otitis media. In the future, the presence of bacteria in the child's body can lead to problems with the cardiovascular and nervous systems, the gastrointestinal tract. For girls, infection with chlamydia in infancy threatens further infertility.

Chlamydia in a woman. A serious complication of chlamydia is cervicitis - inflammation of the cervix, cervical damage and endometriosis - damage to the lining of the uterus. They can lead to further infertility.

Who treats chlamydia in women
Who treats chlamydia in women

For these reasons, it is imperative to treat chlamydia in women. And this in no case should be postponed, since the disease is easier to treat at an early stage.

Reiter's syndrome, which occurs in patients with chlamydia, includes the so-called triad: arthritis, conjunctivitis, urethritis. It most often develops against the background of an acute form of the disease in young women and is accompanied by cervicitis and endometritis.

Chlamydia is a serious disease, the consequences of which can bother a woman for many years even after successful treatment. Oddly enough, but it is chlamydia that much more often than other sexually transmitted infections, leads to infertility, frozen and ectopic pregnancy. Infected women have a significantly increased risk of miscarriages and premature birth.

An increase in the incidence of perinatal mortality is also recorded. Women who have given birth with chlamydia have an increased risk of developing postpartum complications. We should not forget about the consequences of chlamydia for newborns who become infected when passing through the birth canal of the mother.

Chlamydia in a woman. A disease such as chlamydia cannot pass without consequences, and often very serious ones.

Endometritis
Endometritis
  • Endometritis, salpingitis, salpingo-oophoritis. These diseases result from damage to the mucous membranes in the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. All of them are treated, but there is no guarantee that the disease has passed without serious consequences. Scars may well remain in the tubes, which in the future can interfere with the desired pregnancy.
  • As a result of the same scars in the fallopian tubes, the likelihood of an ectopic pregnancy is high.
  • Infertility and the development of malignant tumors. Such a consequence is likely only as a result of too advanced chlamydia, which has not been diagnosed for a long time and has not been treated in any way.
  • After suffering chlamydia, even in the case of a successful conception, there is no complete guarantee of a positive pregnancy outcome. The likelihood of premature birth increases several times.

Chlamydia prevention

Chlamydia in a woman. Prevention of chlamydia is similar to prevention of other sexually transmitted diseases - sexual promiscuity, having one long-term partner, and using condoms.

There are no vaccinations against chlamydia, therefore, in order to avoid the disease, certain rules must be followed to minimize the risk of infection by pathogens.

Who treats chlamydia in women
Who treats chlamydia in women

Disease prevention largely coincides with the prevention of other sexually transmitted diseases. First of all, this is the use of barrier contraception. However, this method is not a panacea, as it does not exclude infection. Interestingly, oral hormonal contraceptives also reduce the likelihood of contracting chlamydia by making the uterine lining more resistant to bacteria.

It is equally important to avoid promiscuous sex, frequent partner changes, and unconventional sex. You should also monitor personal hygiene, wash your hands, especially after using the toilet, public places. There is a very high chance of transmitting bacteria through things like shared towels, garments, especially underwear, etc.

These points should be considered to prevent other family members from contracting chlamydia. Therefore, it is necessary to have personal hygiene products - towels, washcloths, sponges, etc.

  1. Exclusion of casual sex.
  2. Use of barrier methods of contraception.
  3. Emergency prevention of sexually transmitted infections after casual sexual intercourse (no later than 2 hours after intercourse, you must urinate, thoroughly wash the genitals with running water and soap, douche with a solution of Miramistin, Hexicon or Chlorhexidine). It should be noted that such emergency prevention measures should not be used continuously. 3-4 weeks after sexual intercourse, you need to see a doctor for examination (at an earlier date, the diagnosis will be ineffective).
  4. For emergency prophylaxis with medications, you need to see a venereologist no later than 1-2 days after accidental intercourse.

Chlamydia in a woman. Since the disease tends to be asymptomatic, young women who have a regular sex life and have different partners need to undergo regular (annual) examination.

Find out more:

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  • Chlamydia. Diagnostics, analyzes, results and treatment
  • Chlamydia in men - treatment and prevention

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