Trichomoniasis In Men: Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment

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Trichomoniasis In Men: Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment
Trichomoniasis In Men: Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment

Video: Trichomoniasis In Men: Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment

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Video: What is Trichomoniasis? | How Common is Trichomoniasis? 2023, February

Trichomoniasis in men. A man's physical and mental health largely depends on the state of his reproductive system. That is why the representatives of the stronger sex should be extremely careful about their health and, in case of any suspicion, go to a doctor's consultation. Some sexually transmitted diseases, for example, trichomoniasis, cause unpleasant symptoms in men, such as burning and itching in the genitals, pain when urinating, and sexual dysfunction. But many diseases have a latent course, which can only be recognized by listening carefully to your body.

The content of the article:

  • 1 What is trichomoniasis
  • 2 Causative agent of trichomoniasis
  • 3 Forms of trichomoniasis
  • 4 How trichomoniasis manifests itself in men
  • 5 Symptoms of trichomoniasis in men
  • 6 Diagnosis of trichomoniasis in men

    • 6.1 When to diagnose Trichomonas in men
    • 6.2 Biological material for trichomoniasis in men
    • 6.3 Types of research for trichomoniasis in men
  • 7 Treatment of trichomoniasis disease in men
  • 8 Drugs against trichomoniasis in men

    • 8.1 Tablets for trichomoniasis in men
    • 8.2 Local remedies for the treatment of trichomoniasis in men
    • 8.3 Physiotherapy for trichomoniasis in men
    • 8.4 Immunotherapy for trichomoniasis in men
  • 9 Prevention of trichomoniasis in men

What is Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis (or trichomoniasis) urogenital is a disease exclusively of the human urogenital system. The causative agent of trichomoniasis is vaginal (vaginal) Trichomonas, a sexually transmitted infection.

Symptoms of trichomoniasis in men
Symptoms of trichomoniasis in men

The target organs of trichomoniasis in men are the urethra, prostate, testes and their appendages, seminal vesicles, and in women - the vagina, the vaginal part of the cervical canal, and the urethra.

Vaginal Trichomonas in women is found more often due to more pronounced manifestations of trichomoniasis and more frequent visits to the doctor for preventive purposes. Basically, women of reproductive age from 16 to 35 years old get sick with trichomoniasis.

In men, usually, the presence of Trichomonas does not cause obvious symptoms of trichomoniasis, they are often carriers of Trichomonas and, without experiencing obvious discomfort, transmit the infection to their sexual partners.

During childbirth, infection with trichomoniasis of a newborn from a sick mother occurs in about 5% of cases. In newborns, trichomoniasis is mild due to the structural features of the epithelium and is capable of self-healing.

Trichomoniasis can be one of the causes of non-gonococcal urethritis, chronic prostatitis and epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis), contribute to the development of male infertility due to a decrease in the mobility and vitality of sperm.

Symptoms of trichomoniasis in men
Symptoms of trichomoniasis in men

Trichomoniasis infection mainly occurs through sexual intercourse. In everyday life - through contaminated linen, towels, swimwear, trichomoniasis is extremely rare.

The number of diseases associated with trichomoniasis is large. Trichomoniasis is often detected with other STI pathogens (gonococci, chlamydia, ureaplasma, candida fungi, herpes viruses). Currently, it is believed that Trichomonas contribute to the development of diabetes, mastopathy, allergies and even cancer.

The causative agent of trichomoniasis

Trichomonas, or Trichomonas, belongs to the genus of the simplest microorganisms. Single-celled parasites of this class in the human body carry out their activities without oxygen. The body temperature is optimal for their reproduction.

Symptoms of trichomoniasis in men
Symptoms of trichomoniasis in men

This microorganism from the genus of protozoa introduces viruses and bacteria into its cells - the causative agents of herpes, chlamydia, gonorrhea, candidiasis, ureaplasmosis, cytomegalovirus. This feature protects pathogenic bacteria from the effects of drugs and the protective cells of the immune system.

Vaginal Trichomonas is most often found on the mucous membrane of the organs of the genitourinary system, although it parasitizes both in the blood and in other organs.

Due to this property, causative agents of dangerous infections spread through tissues and organs, reduce immunity, and cause complications. Damage to the mucous epithelium of the genitourinary tract opens the gate to other, more dangerous infections. For example, the combination of trichomoniasis with the defeat of the AIDS virus is often diagnosed.

Forms of trichomoniasis

Based on the characteristics of the course of the disease, there are: fresh trichomoniasis; chronic trichomoniasis; Trichomonas carriage.

Trichomoniasis is called fresh, which exists in the human body for no more than 2 months. Fresh trichomoniasis, in turn, includes an acute, subacute and torpid (that is, "sluggish") stage.

In the acute form of trichomoniasis, women complain of the classic symptoms of the disease: profuse vaginal discharge, itching and burning in the external genital area. In men, acute trichomoniasis most often affects the urethra, which causes a burning sensation and pain when urinating.

In the absence of adequate treatment, after three to four weeks, the symptoms of trichomoniasis disappear, but this, of course, does not mean the recovery of the patient with trichomoniasis, but, on the contrary, the transition of the disease into a chronic form.

Chronic is called trichomoniasis more than 2 months old. This form of trichomoniasis is characterized by a long course, with recurrent exacerbations. Various factors can provoke exacerbations, for example, general and gynecological diseases, hypothermia or violations of the rules of sexual hygiene.

Finally, Trichomonas infection is a course of infection in which Trichomonas are found in the vaginal contents, but the patient has no manifestations of Trichomoniasis. With Trichomonas, Trichomonas during sexual intercourse are transmitted from the carrier to healthy people, causing them the typical symptoms of trichomoniasis.

How trichomoniasis manifests itself in men

In men, the disease begins with itching, tickling, burning, and sometimes pain when urinating. Discharge from the urethra appears, which can be transparent or grayish-white, very rarely foamy.

Sometimes they take the form of a large transparent spherical drop, as if rolling out from the external opening of the urethra, the lips of which are swollen and inflamed. With the latent form of Trichomonas urethritis, patients complain of intermittent scanty discharge from the urethra, and then only in the morning in the form of a drop (French venereologists called this "good morning").

The unpleasant sensations when urinating are intensified after drinking alcoholic beverages, spicy foods. The spread of discomfort to the glans penis, scrotum, perineum, rectum, lumbar region is possible. Often, such patients are treated for a long time and unsuccessfully by neuropathologists for sciatica.

Trichomoniasis in men can give complications: the head of the penis turns red, the foreskin swells, then wounds, abrasions, and sometimes ulcers form on the penis. With phimosis, the penis, increasing in size, takes on the shape of a pear, becomes painful. Due to edema, exposure of its head becomes impossible.

A complication of trichomoniasis is inflammation of the prostate gland - prostatitis. At the same time, the man himself may not feel anything for years, not suspect that he is sick, but infect women during intercourse.

Sometimes patients with prostatitis experience a feeling of heaviness and dull pressure in the anus, itching in it and in the urethra, pain in the perineum. Often, vision and orgasm are weakened, and premature ejaculation occurs.

With Trichomonas bladder inflammation, patients are forced to urinate every 15-30 minutes. Urination is accompanied by sharp pain and a few drops of blood. Trichomonas epididymitis is possible, which occurs in 7-15% of patients. Some of them have fever, pain in the scrotum and testicle.

Children usually contract trichomoniasis from adults through sexual contact. In about 32% of them, inflammation of the urethra - urethritis - is associated with which painful urination may appear.

Symptoms of trichomoniasis in men

Trichomoniasis carries out its activity in the male body in the following organs: in the prostate, urethra, epididymis, in the seminal vesicles. The latent course of the disease in most men leads to the fact that they unwittingly become active carriers of the disease, infecting their sexual partners with trichomoniasis.

The clinical manifestations of Trichomonas urethral lesions are very similar to those of other similar infections in men. Given the greater affinity of the pathogen to the mucous membrane, the course of Trichomonas urethritis may not be as violent as, for example, gonorrheal.

Signs of trichomoniasis in men:

  • discharge from the urethra mucous, non-purulent, often scanty;
  • itching and burning in the urethra, aggravated by urination;
  • aching pains in the perineum, radiating to the scrotum and rectum (perineal pain can be a symptom of incipient prostatitis);
  • pain during intercourse (associated with stretching and mechanical irritation of the inflamed urethra, damage to the prostate and seminal vesicles);
  • adhesion and inflammation of the urethral sponges;
  • frequent urge to urinate.

In 10-50% of cases, those suffering from this pathology do not have any symptoms. Discharge can be rare, provoked by alcohol intake, hypothermia, prolonged sexual abstinence.

Sometimes trichomoniasis can generally debut with inflammation with mild itching, redness of the head of the penis in men, a temporary decrease in erectile function, mistaken by the patients themselves for manifestations of chronic prostatitis.

Trichomonas balanitis, balanoposthitis - infection of the glans penis and foreskin, often with subsequent ulceration (observed in patients with reduced immunity or when a secondary infection is attached).

Diagnosis of trichomoniasis in men

When to diagnose Trichomonas in men

The method of laboratory research for a disease in men differs little from that for other genital infections.

Symptoms of trichomoniasis in men
Symptoms of trichomoniasis in men

As a rule, analyzes and biological tests are carried out based on the following indications:

  • manifestations of the inflammatory process of the genitourinary sphere, identified clinically and / and laboratory;
  • examination of partners before a planned pregnancy;
  • prehospital examination on the eve of operations on the pelvic organs;
  • sexual contact with a known patient with an infection of the urogenital tract.

Biological material for trichomoniasis in men

Biological material for diagnosis:

  • smear or discharge (if abundant) from the urethra;
  • the first portion of urine with free urination;
  • secret of the prostate gland (in case of clinical signs of prostatitis).

Types of research for trichomoniasis in men

Types of research for trichomoniasis in men:

  • smear microscopy: for an effective analysis, a so-called "wet smear" is needed, that is, fresh material (obtained by placing it on a glass slide, a drop of saline is added there). The disadvantage of the method is its low reliability in chronic forms or an erased picture of the course of the disease, therefore, the basic criterion for its use is pronounced clinical manifestations;
  • polymerase chain reaction (PCR): almost always effective and is included in the "gold standard" biological tests for trichomoniasis in men. It is characterized by high sensitivity (88-97%) even with an extremely sluggish persistent pathogen. In fact, PCR is the only truly valuable way to verify the diagnosis of trichomoniasis;
  • culture or bacterial culture: quite informative for asymptomatic forms of the disease. Due to the large amount of time required for the growth of a colony of microorganisms, labor costs, and also low sensitivity, in contrast to PCR, this direction finds its application less and less. It can be the “method of choice” if PCR is not technically feasible;
  • enzyme immunoassay and direct immunofluorescence: they are not highly sensitive, for this reason they are not used in the diagnosis of trichomoniasis. The reliability of the microscopy of stained preparations is often questionable due to the widespread subjective interpretation of the results.

Treatment of trichomoniasis disease in men

The specifics of the treatment of trichomoniasis in men is determined by the attending physician based on the severity of the disease. Therapy is directed at two partners at once, even when the second tests showed a negative result.

The duration of the course of treatment for men does not exceed two weeks. The timing may increase if complications arise or the selected medications are ineffective.

Treatment of this disease can take place in the following areas:

  • oral medication; intravenous administration of drugs;
  • instillation. Simply put, the introduction of therapeutic solutions into the urethra;
  • washing the urethral canal with anti-trichomonas medications;
  • intramuscular injections; methods of physiotherapy.

For the treatment of the disease, drugs are used such as: Ornidazole. Available in the form of tablets and capsules; antibacterial drugs. Trichopolum, metronidazole. Drugs of this group quickly accumulate in the blood, thereby providing the optimal level of the effective dosage. Available as tablets or suppositories.

Drugs against trichomoniasis in men

Tablets for trichomoniasis in men

In accordance with the latest WHO recommendations, therapy of the disease should be carried out in combination with the intake of drugs based on 5-nitromidazole derivatives. These drugs are part of the antiparasitic group and have a wide spectrum of action. Often the following antibiotic drugs are prescribed to eliminate trichomoniasis in the form of tablets.

List of pills for trichomoniasis in men:

  • Trichopolum - on the 1st day, 0.75 g 4 times a day, then 0.5 g 4 times a day for two days, the course of treatment requires 5 g;
  • Fazizhin - 0.5 g 2 times a day every day for a week;
  • Flagin - on the 1st day, 0.5 g 2 times a day, then 0.25 g 3 times a day on the 2nd day and 0.25 g 2 times a day for the next 4 days, for a course of treatment 3.75 g of the drug is required;
  • Efloran - 0.5 g 4 times a day for 5 days, then 1 twice a day for the next 7-10 days;
  • Metronidazole - the first 4 days, 0.25 g three times a day, another 4 days, 0.25 twice a day, the course of treatment requires 5 g;
  • Tinidazole - a single dose of 2 g (4 tablets) or 0.5 g every 15 minutes for an hour (2 g per course of treatment);
  • Trichopolum - on the 1st day, 0.75 g 4 times a day, then 0.5 g 4 times a day for two days, the course of treatment requires 5 g;
  • Atrikan 250 - 0.25 g twice a day for 4 days;
  • Meratin - inside 0.5 g twice a day for 5 days; additionally intravaginally 1 tablet (0.5 g) at night (maximum total daily dose of 1.5 g);
  • Naxogin - 4 tablets once (that is, 2 g) for acute trichomoniasis or 1 tablet (0.25 g) twice a day for 6 days in the chronic form;
  • Nitazol - 0.1 g three times a day for 2 weeks; additionally intravaginally suppositories containing 0.12 g of the drug twice a day or 2.5% aerosol foam also twice a day.
  • Metronidazole (taken for a total duration of 10 days, several times a day in the amount of 1 tablet at a time);
  • Tinidazole and Ornidazole are drugs that are prescribed if a person has individual hypersensitivity to the components of Metronidazole (take the drug for 7 days in the amount of two tablets per day, divided into several doses).

Additionally, other antibiotic drugs may be prescribed, for example, Doxycycline or Furazolidone.

The exact dosage of each medication is determined by the attending physician based on your overall health.

Local remedies for the treatment of trichomoniasis in men

For topical application, creams with nitroimidazoles are used: Rozex, Rosamet. They do not replace, but complement drug therapy with pills. All of these drugs are incompatible with alcoholic beverages. They cannot be combined during treatment and for a month after it.

Symptoms of trichomoniasis in men
Symptoms of trichomoniasis in men

Trichomoniasis in men can be treated with antibacterial suppositories containing the substance metronidazole. These are presented in the form of a thin stick that must be inserted into the urethra.

The use of other local remedies is also prescribed, for example, such antibacterial ointments as Hexicon, Clotrimazole, Metrogyl. Intramuscular injections (for example, the drug Ceftriaxone), which are effective in relapses of pathology and in advanced trichomoniasis, are also rarely used.

Physiotherapy for trichomoniasis in men

Symptoms of trichomoniasis in men
Symptoms of trichomoniasis in men

Chronic and rapidly recurrent trichomoniasis is also treated with physiotherapy. For example, it can be hardware physiotherapy. In this case, ultraviolet radiation is prescribed to the external genital organs, in particular, the segmental zone (7-8 sessions every day).

How to treat trichomoniasis in women and men? In such cases, laser therapy will also be effective, which helps to improve local hemodynamics, tissue trophism, and provides an anti-inflammatory effect. Treatment of the disease in men can be supplemented with prostate massage and UHF therapy.

Immunotherapy for trichomoniasis in men

In the event that trichomoniasis has a severe course or is accompanied by complications that inhibit the activity of the immune system, immunomodulatory drugs are prescribed. For example, it can be injections of a drug such as SolcoTrichovac. In this case, it is prescribed intramuscularly.

Symptoms of trichomoniasis in men
Symptoms of trichomoniasis in men

When a drug enters the body, an activation of the production of antibodies to Trichomonas and other pathogenic microorganisms is observed. In this case, the growth of beneficial bacteria is accelerated and the creation of unfavorable conditions for the vital activity of pathogenic pathogens (in our case, Trichomonas).

The first positive results are visible only after 2 weeks after drug administration.

If necessary, revaccination is carried out after 1-2 years. If SolcoTrichovak is ineffective, other immunomodulators are prescribed, for example, Cycloferon or Genferon. In addition, other drugs with a similar effect are often used: multivitamin preparations; pirogeal; tincture of eleutherococcus.

Prevention of trichomoniasis in men

Methods for preventing disease are no different from those for other STIs:

  • sex only with a trusted partner and refusal of casual relationships;
  • condom use;
  • following the rules of personal hygiene.

If these simple rules are followed, there are very high chances of avoiding infection with trichomoniasis and preventing the development of severe complications.

Find out more:

  • Trichomonas in women - the main signs and diagnosis
  • Signs of trichomoniasis in women - symptoms and treatment
  • Chlamydia in a woman - symptoms, diagnosis, treatment
  • Chlamydia in women - causes, symptoms, diagnosis

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